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Fibers, Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Continuous Fiber Angle Optimization (CFAO) provides a new design approach for parts produced using [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Serpentine Group Minerals in Soils: A Case Study from the Village of San Severino Lucano (Basilicata, Southern Italy)
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020018
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) is a generic term used to refer to both regulated and un-regulated fibrous minerals when encountered in natural geological deposits. These minerals represent a cause of health hazard, since they have been assessed as potential environmental pollutants that may [...] Read more.
Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) is a generic term used to refer to both regulated and un-regulated fibrous minerals when encountered in natural geological deposits. These minerals represent a cause of health hazard, since they have been assessed as potential environmental pollutants that may occur both in rocks and derived soils. In the present work, we focused on the village of San Severino Lucano, located in the Basilicata region (southern Apennines); due to its geographic isolation from other main sources of asbestos, it represents an excellent example of hazardous and not occupational exposure of population. From the village and its surroundings, we collected eight serpentinite-derived soil samples and carried out Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Derivative Thermogravimetric (DTG) and Transmission Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (TEM-EDS), in order to perform a detailed characterization of serpentine varieties and other fibrous minerals. Investigation pointed out that chrysotile and asbestos tremolite occur in all of the samples. As for the fibrous but non-asbestos classified minerals, polygonal serpentine and fibrous antigorite were detected in a few samples. Results showed that the cultivation of soils developed upon serpentinite bedrocks were rich in harmful minerals, which if dispersed in the air can be a source of environmental pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Fibres)
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Open AccessArticle Temperature Dependent Strain/Damage Monitoring of Glass/Epoxy Composites with Graphene as a Piezoresistive Interphase
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020017
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
Graphene as an interphase not only improves the mechanical performance of fiber reinforced polymer composites but also induces functional properties like electrical conductivity, thus providing the possibility of strain monitoring in real time. At this aim, graphene oxide (GO) was electrophoretically deposited at [...] Read more.
Graphene as an interphase not only improves the mechanical performance of fiber reinforced polymer composites but also induces functional properties like electrical conductivity, thus providing the possibility of strain monitoring in real time. At this aim, graphene oxide (GO) was electrophoretically deposited at different applied potentials on glass fibers to create a uniform coating and was subsequently chemically reduced to obtain a conductive layer of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). After the optimization of the deposition process, composite laminates were prepared by hand lay-up with an epoxy resin, followed by curing in vacuum bag. The deposited rGO interphase improved the dynamic moduli (storage and loss modulus), the flexural strength (+23%), and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) (+29%) of the composites. Moreover, laminates reinforced with rGO-coated glass fibers showed an electrical resistivity in the order of ~101 Ω·m, with a negative temperature coefficient. The piezoresistivity of the composites was monitored under flexural loading under isothermal conditions, and strain/damage monitoring was evaluated at different temperatures through the change of the electrical resistance with the applied strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glass Fibers 2018)
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Open AccessReview Hollow-Core Fiber Technology: The Rising of “Gas Photonics”
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020016
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Since their inception, about 20 years ago, hollow-core photonic crystal fiber and its gas-filled form are now establishing themselves both as a platform in advancing our knowledge on how light is confined and guided in microstructured dielectric optical waveguides, and a remarkable enabler [...] Read more.
Since their inception, about 20 years ago, hollow-core photonic crystal fiber and its gas-filled form are now establishing themselves both as a platform in advancing our knowledge on how light is confined and guided in microstructured dielectric optical waveguides, and a remarkable enabler in a large and diverse range of fields. The latter spans from nonlinear and coherent optics, atom optics and laser metrology, quantum information to high optical field physics and plasma physics. Here, we give a historical account of the major seminal works, we review the physics principles underlying the different optical guidance mechanisms that have emerged and how they have been used as design tools to set the current state-of-the-art in the transmission performance of such fibers. In a second part of this review, we give a nonexhaustive, yet representative, list of the different applications where gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber played a transformative role, and how the achieved results are leading to the emergence of a new field, which could be coined “Gas photonics”. We particularly stress on the synergetic interplay between glass, gas, and light in founding this new fiber science and technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hollow core optical fibers)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Assessment and Visualisation of the Wood and Poly(Lactic Acid) Interface in Sandwich Laminate Composites
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020015
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
Fluorescence microscopy was applied to understand adhesion interfaces developed within laminated composite sandwiches formed between poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and wood veneers. Composites formed with maple veneer had greater tensile bond strength when manufactured at 200 °C (10.4 N/mm2) compared to formation [...] Read more.
Fluorescence microscopy was applied to understand adhesion interfaces developed within laminated composite sandwiches formed between poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and wood veneers. Composites formed with maple veneer had greater tensile bond strength when manufactured at 200 °C (10.4 N/mm2) compared to formation at 140 °C (8.7 N/mm2), while significantly lower bond strength was achieved using spruce veneers, at 5.2 and 3.5 N/mm2, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative confocal microscopy assessments revealed differing bondline thicknesses and PLA ingress within the wood ultrastructure. Forming maple veneer composites at 200 °C promoted greater PLA mobility away from the bondline to reinforce the wood–PLA interface and deliver associated greater composite bond strength. The addition of 25% wood fibre to PLA led to fibre alignment and overlap within bondlines contributing to relatively thicker, heterogeneous bondlines. Study outcomes show that the composite processing temperature impacts the adhesion interface and composite performance and will have broad application over veneer overlays, laminates and wood plastic composites (WPCs) using wood, particles or fibres with PLA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Plastic Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Continuous Fiber Angle Topology Optimization for Polymer Composite Deposition Additive Manufacturing Applications
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020014
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Mechanical properties of parts produced with polymer deposition additive manufacturing (AM) depend on the print bead direction, particularly when short carbon-fiber reinforcement is added to the polymer feedstock. This offers a unique opportunity in the design of these structures since the AM print [...] Read more.
Mechanical properties of parts produced with polymer deposition additive manufacturing (AM) depend on the print bead direction, particularly when short carbon-fiber reinforcement is added to the polymer feedstock. This offers a unique opportunity in the design of these structures since the AM print path can potentially be defined in a direction that takes advantage of the enhanced stiffness gained in the bead and, therefore, fiber direction. This paper presents a topology optimization approach for continuous fiber angle optimization (CFAO), which computes the best layout and orientation of fiber reinforcement for AM structures. Statically loaded structures are designed for minimum compliance where the adjoint variable method is used to compute design derivatives, and a sensitivity filter is employed to reduce the checkerboard effect. The nature of the layer-by-layer approach in AM is given special consideration in the algorithm presented. Examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the method in both two and three dimensions. The solution to our two dimensional problem is then printed with a fused filament fabrication (FFF) desktop printer using the material distribution results and a simple infill method which approximates the optimal fiber angle results using a contour-parallel deposition strategy. Mechanical stiffness testing of the printed parts shows improved results as compared to structures designed without accounting for the direction of the composite structure. Results show that the mechanical properties of the final FFF carbon fiber/polymer composite printed parts are greatly influenced by the print direction, and optimized material orientation tends to align with the imposed force direction to minimize the compliance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Damage Characterization of Nano-Interleaved CFRP under Static and Fatigue Loading
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020013
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
The use of high strength-to-weight ratio-laminated fiber-reinforced composites is emerging in engineering sectors such as aerospace, marine and automotive to improve productivity. Nevertheless, delamination between the layers is a limiting factor for the wider application of laminated composites, as it reduces the stiffness [...] Read more.
The use of high strength-to-weight ratio-laminated fiber-reinforced composites is emerging in engineering sectors such as aerospace, marine and automotive to improve productivity. Nevertheless, delamination between the layers is a limiting factor for the wider application of laminated composites, as it reduces the stiffness and strengths of the structure. Previous studies have proven that ply interface nanofibrous fiber reinforcement has an effective influence on delamination resistance of laminated composite materials. This paper aims to investigate the effect of nanofiber ply interface reinforcement on mode I properties and failure responses when being subjected to static and fatigue loadings. For this purpose, virgin and nanomodified woven laminates were subjected to Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) experiments. Static and fatigue tests were performed in accordance with standards and the Acoustic Emissions (AE) were acquired during these tests. The results showed not only a 130% increase of delamination toughness for nanomodified specimens in the case of static loads, but also a relevant crack growth resistance in the case of fatigue loads. In addition, the AE permitted to relate these improvements to the different failure mechanisms occurring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Method for Embedding Semiconductor Dies within Textile Yarn to Create Electronic Textiles
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020012
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
Electronic yarns (E-yarns) contain electronics fully incorporated into the yarn’s structure prior to textile or garment production. They consist of a conductive core made from a flexible, multi-strand copper wire onto which semiconductor dies or MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) are soldered. The device and [...] Read more.
Electronic yarns (E-yarns) contain electronics fully incorporated into the yarn’s structure prior to textile or garment production. They consist of a conductive core made from a flexible, multi-strand copper wire onto which semiconductor dies or MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) are soldered. The device and solder joints are then encapsulated within a resin micro-pod, which is subsequently surrounded by a textile sheath, which also covers the copper wires. The encapsulation of semiconductor dies or MEMS devices within the resin polymer micro-pod is a critical component of the fabrication process, as the micro-pod protects the dies from mechanical and chemical stresses, and hermetically seals the device, which makes the E-yarn washable. The process of manufacturing E-yarns requires automation to increase production speeds and to ensure consistency of the micro-pod structure. The design and development of a semi-automated encapsulation unit used to fabricate the micro-pods is presented here. The micro-pods were made from a ultra-violet (UV) curable polymer resin. This work details the choice of machinery and methods to create a semi-automated encapsulation system in which incoming dies were detected then covered in resin micro-pods. The system detected incoming 0402 metric package dies with an accuracy of 87 to 98%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronically Active Textiles)
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Open AccessArticle Strength and Durability Study of Concrete Structures Using Aramid-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020011
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) is an important material used for strengthening and retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures. Commonly used fibers are glass, carbon, and aramid fibers. The durability of structures can be extended by selecting an appropriate method of strengthening. FRP wrapping is one [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) is an important material used for strengthening and retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures. Commonly used fibers are glass, carbon, and aramid fibers. The durability of structures can be extended by selecting an appropriate method of strengthening. FRP wrapping is one of the easiest methods for repair, retrofit, and maintenance of structural elements. Deterioration of structures may be due to moisture content, salt water, or contact with alkali solutions. Using FRP, additional strength can be gained by structural elements. This paper investigates the durability of aramid-fiber-wrapped concrete cube specimens subjected to acid attack and temperature rise. The study focuses on the durability of aramid-fiber-wrapped concrete by considering the compressive strength parameter of the concrete cube. Concrete cubes are prepared as specimens with a double wrapping of aramid fibers. Diluted hydrochloric acid solution is used for immersion of specimens for curing periods of 7, 30, and 70 days. The aramid-fiber wrapping reduces weight loss by 40% and improves compressive strength by 140%. In a fire resistance test, the specimens were kept in a hot air oven at a temperature of 200 °C at different time intervals. Even after fire attack, weight loss in specimens reduced by 60%, with about 150% enhancement in compressive strength due to aramid fiber. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties of Concrete with Steel and Polypropylene Fibres at Elevated Temperatures
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Addition of steel fibres to concrete is known to have a significant positive influence on the mechanical properties of concrete. Micro polypropylene (PP) fibres are added to concrete to improve its performance under thermal loads such as in case of fire by preventing [...] Read more.
Addition of steel fibres to concrete is known to have a significant positive influence on the mechanical properties of concrete. Micro polypropylene (PP) fibres are added to concrete to improve its performance under thermal loads such as in case of fire by preventing the phenomena of explosive spalling. An optimum mixture of steel and micro PP fibres added to concrete may be utilized to enhance both the mechanical and thermal behaviour of concrete. In this work, systematic investigations were carried out to study the influence of elevated temperature on the mechanical properties and physical properties of high strength concrete without and with fibres. Three different mixtures for high strength concrete were used, namely normal concrete without fibres, Steel fibre reinforced concrete and Hybrid fibre reinforced concrete having a blend of hooked end steel fibres and micro PP fibres. The specimens were tested in ambient conditions as well as after exposure to a pre-defined elevated temperature and cooling down to room temperature. For all investigated concrete mixtures the thermal degradation of following properties were investigated: compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, bending strength, fracture energy and static modulus of elasticity. This paper summarizes the findings of the tests performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in Fiber Reinforced Concrete And its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Obtaining an Artificial Aggregate from Cement-Asbestos Waste by the Melting Technique in an Arc-Resistance Furnace
Fibers 2019, 7(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7020010
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays, asbestos waste still remains a serious problem. Due to the carcinogenic properties of asbestos, which are related to its fibrous structure, the exposure to asbestos mineral and asbestos-containing materials (ACM) causes dangerous health effects. This problem can be solved by recycling techniques, [...] Read more.
Nowadays, asbestos waste still remains a serious problem. Due to the carcinogenic properties of asbestos, which are related to its fibrous structure, the exposure to asbestos mineral and asbestos-containing materials (ACM) causes dangerous health effects. This problem can be solved by recycling techniques, which allow the re-use of neutralized asbestos waste, instead of disposing it in special landfills. The article presents the results of research aimed at investigating the possibility of obtaining aggregates from asbestos waste by the fusion process in the electric arc-resistance process. A mixture of ACM with selected fluxes was were melted and then cast to form a grain of aggregates. The chemical composition of the material was determined before and after the melting process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were applied to evaluate the effects of the fusion process. The main properties of the obtained aggregate were also measured. The results confirmed that the fibrous structure of asbestos was destroyed in the obtained material, which can be successfully used for the production of artificial aggregates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Fibres)
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