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Open AccessArticle

The Gain of Low Thermal Expansivity via Phase Transition in Electroformed Invar

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 169;
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin Films and Patterned Structures by Electrochemical Methods)
PDF [2797 KB, uploaded 2 May 2018]


In the organic light-emitting diode display industry, Invar exhibits anomalously low thermal expansivity and is, therefore, used as a material for fine metal masks, which are necessary components for the evaporation process of diode materials. We present an electroforming method for fabricating Fe-Ni alloys with a coefficient of thermal expansion lower than that of conventional Invar. The principle of controlling the thermal expansivity of electroformed Fe-Ni alloys is clarified in terms of the behavior of the phases constituting them. The cause of the Invar anomalies, which has not yet been fully elucidated, is explained by combining the Weiss model based on the electron configurations of Fe atoms and a model that we propose based on atom configurations. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroforming; Fe-Ni alloy; Invar; fine metal mask; thermal expansivity electroforming; Fe-Ni alloy; Invar; fine metal mask; thermal expansivity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Park, Y.B.; Kim, I.G. The Gain of Low Thermal Expansivity via Phase Transition in Electroformed Invar. Coatings 2018, 8, 169.

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