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Review

Bulk and Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensors for Milk Analysis †

Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
This paper is an extended version of the conference paper: Schöck, N.; Weber, T.; Länge, K. Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators for Milk Analysis. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Electronic Conference on Biosensors, 2–17 February 2022.
Biosensors 2022, 12(8), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080602
Received: 4 July 2022 / Revised: 29 July 2022 / Accepted: 29 July 2022 / Published: 5 August 2022
Milk and dairy products are common foods and, therefore, are subject to regular controls. Such controls cover both the identification and quantification of specific components and the determination of physical parameters. Components include the usual milk ingredients, mainly carbohydrates, proteins, and fat, and any impurities that may be present. The latter range from small molecules, such as drug residues, to large molecules, e.g., protein-based toxins, to pathogenic microorganisms. Physical parameters of interest include viscosity as an indicator of milk gelation. Bulk and surface acoustic wave sensors, such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, can principally be used for both types of analysis, with the actual application mainly depending on the device coating and the test format. This review summarizes the achievements of acoustic sensor devices used for milk analysis applications, including the determination of physical liquid parameters and the detection of low- and high-molecular-weight analytes and microorganisms. It is shown how the various requirements resulting from the respective analytes and the complex sample matrix are addressed, and to what extent the analytical demands, e.g., with regard to legal limits, are met. View Full-Text
Keywords: bulk acoustic wave; surface acoustic wave; quartz crystal microbalance; EMPAS; milk; proteins; toxins; drug residues; pathogens; lab-on-a-chip bulk acoustic wave; surface acoustic wave; quartz crystal microbalance; EMPAS; milk; proteins; toxins; drug residues; pathogens; lab-on-a-chip
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MDPI and ACS Style

Länge, K. Bulk and Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensors for Milk Analysis. Biosensors 2022, 12, 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080602

AMA Style

Länge K. Bulk and Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensors for Milk Analysis. Biosensors. 2022; 12(8):602. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080602

Chicago/Turabian Style

Länge, Kerstin. 2022. "Bulk and Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensors for Milk Analysis" Biosensors 12, no. 8: 602. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12080602

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