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Open AccessArticle

Electrically-Conductive Sub-Micron Carbon Particles from Lignin: Elucidation of Nanostructure and Use as Filler in Cellulose Nanopapers

1
Department of Materials Science and Process Engineering, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Science, Vienna, 3430 Tulln, Austria
2
Wood K plus—Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, 4040 Linz, Austria
3
Department of Nanobiotechnology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Science, Vienna, 1190 Vienna, Austria
4
Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität of Leoben, 8700 Leoben, Austria
5
Chair for Biogenic Polymers, Technische Universität München, 94315 Straubing, Germany
6
Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121055
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Nanomaterials)
Carbon particles were produced from kraft lignin through carbonization of perfectly spherical, sub-micron beads obtained by aerosol flow. The structure of the resulting carbon particles was elucidated and compared to that derived from commercially available technical lignin powder, which is undefined in geometry. In addition to the smaller diameters of the lignin beads (<1 µm) compared to those of the lignin powder (100 µm), the former displayed a slightly higher structural order as revealed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. With regard to potential application in composite structures, the sub-micron carbon beads were clearly advantageous as a filler of cellulose nanopapers, which displayed better mechanical performance but with limited electrical conductivity. Compression sensing was achieved for this nanocomposite system. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon particles; cellulose nanopaper; electrical conductivity; lignin carbon particles; cellulose nanopaper; electrical conductivity; lignin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Köhnke, J.; Rennhofer, H.; Unterweger, C.; Gierlinger, N.; Keckes, J.; Zollfrank, C.; Rojas, O.J.; Gindl-Altmutter, W. Electrically-Conductive Sub-Micron Carbon Particles from Lignin: Elucidation of Nanostructure and Use as Filler in Cellulose Nanopapers. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 1055.

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