Next Article in Journal
Stealth Biocompatible Si-Based Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications
Next Article in Special Issue
Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO2-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties
Previous Article in Journal
Practical Liposomal Formulation for Taxanes with Polyethoxylated Castor Oil and Ethanol with Complete Encapsulation Efficiency and High Loading Efficiency
Previous Article in Special Issue
In Vitro Sonodynamic Therapeutic Effect of Polyion Complex Micelles Incorporating Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
Open AccessArticle

Tuning the Electronic Conductivity in Hydrothermally Grown Rutile TiO2 Nanowires: Effect of Heat Treatment in Different Environments

1
Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf, Germany
2
Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, POB 680, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
3
Materials Analytics, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, 52074 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(10), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7100289
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ZnO and TiO2 Based Nanostructures)
Hydrothermally grown rutile TiO2 nanowires are intrinsically full of lattice defects, especially oxygen vacancies. These vacancies have a significant influence on the structural and electronic properties of the nanowires. In this study, we report a post-growth heat treatment in different environments that allows control of the distribution of these defects inside the nanowire, and thus gives direct access to tuning of the properties of rutile TiO2 nanowires. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study is used to analyze the structural changes inside the nanowires which are correlated to the measured optical and electrical properties. The highly defective as-grown nanowire arrays have a white appearance and show typical semiconducting properties with n-type conductivity, which is related to the high density of oxygen vacancies. Heat treatment in air atmosphere leads to a vacancy condensation and results in nanowires which possess insulating properties, whereas heat treatment in N2 atmosphere leads to nanowire arrays that appear black and show almost metal-like conductivity. We link this high conductivity to a TiO2−x shell which forms during the annealing process due to the slightly reducing N2 environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: black TiO2; nanowire; conductivity; electron energy loss spectroscopy; oxygen vacancy; defects black TiO2; nanowire; conductivity; electron energy loss spectroscopy; oxygen vacancy; defects
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Folger, A.; Kalb, J.; Schmidt-Mende, L.; Scheu, C. Tuning the Electronic Conductivity in Hydrothermally Grown Rutile TiO2 Nanowires: Effect of Heat Treatment in Different Environments. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 289. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7100289

AMA Style

Folger A, Kalb J, Schmidt-Mende L, Scheu C. Tuning the Electronic Conductivity in Hydrothermally Grown Rutile TiO2 Nanowires: Effect of Heat Treatment in Different Environments. Nanomaterials. 2017; 7(10):289. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7100289

Chicago/Turabian Style

Folger, Alena; Kalb, Julian; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Scheu, Christina. 2017. "Tuning the Electronic Conductivity in Hydrothermally Grown Rutile TiO2 Nanowires: Effect of Heat Treatment in Different Environments" Nanomaterials 7, no. 10: 289. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7100289

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop