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Recent Advances in Surface Nanoengineering for Biofilm Prevention and Control. Part I: Molecular Basis of Biofilm Recalcitrance. Passive Anti-Biofouling Nanocoatings

1
“Costin Nenitzescu” Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, G. Polizu Street 1-7, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
2
Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, G. Polizu Street 1-7, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061230
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 20 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Nanomaterials Coating: Fabrication and Applications)
Medical device-associated infections are becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, prompting researchers to find new, more effective ways to control the bacterial colonisation of surfaces and biofilm development. Bacteria in biofilms exhibit a set of “emergent properties”, meaning those properties that are not predictable from the study of free-living bacterial cells. The social coordinated behaviour in the biofilm lifestyle involves intricate signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms underlying the gain in resistance and tolerance (recalcitrance) towards antimicrobial agents as compared to free-floating bacteria. Nanotechnology provides powerful tools to disrupt the processes responsible for recalcitrance development in all stages of the biofilm life cycle. The present paper is a state-of-the-art review of the surface nanoengineering strategies currently used to design antibiofilm coatings. The review is structurally organised in two parts according to the targeted biofilm life cycle stages and molecular mechanisms intervening in recalcitrance development. Therefore, in the present first part, we begin with a presentation of the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms responsible for increased recalcitrance that have to be disrupted. Further, we deal with passive surface nanoengineering strategies that aim to prevent bacterial cells from settling onto a biotic or abiotic surface. Both “fouling-resistant” and “fouling release” strategies are addressed as well as their synergic combination in a single unique nanoplatform. View Full-Text
Keywords: nosocomial infections; antibiofilm coatings; molecular mechanisms of biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance and tolerance; passive antiadhesive strategies; “fouling resistant”; “fouling release” nosocomial infections; antibiofilm coatings; molecular mechanisms of biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance and tolerance; passive antiadhesive strategies; “fouling resistant”; “fouling release”
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Balaure, P.C.; Grumezescu, A.M. Recent Advances in Surface Nanoengineering for Biofilm Prevention and Control. Part I: Molecular Basis of Biofilm Recalcitrance. Passive Anti-Biofouling Nanocoatings. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1230.

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