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Open AccessArticle

Removal of Diclofenac, Paracetamol, and Carbamazepine from Model Aqueous Solutions by Magnetic Sol–Gel Encapsulated Horseradish Peroxidase and Lignin Peroxidase Composites

1
Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17, General Naumov Street, 03164 Kyiv, Ukraine
3
Department of Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7008, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020282
Received: 28 December 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2020 / Accepted: 1 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures)
Sustainable and green synthesis of nanocomposites for degradation of pharmaceuticals was developed via immobilization and stabilization of the biological strong oxidizing agents, peroxidase enzymes, on a solid support. Sol–gel encapsulated enzyme composites were characterized using electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), atomic force microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) were adsorbed onto magnetite nanoparticles and sol–gel encapsulated in a surface silica layer. Encapsulation enhanced the stability of the biocatalysts over time and thermal stability. The biocatalysts showed appreciable selectivity in oxidation of the organic drinking water pollutants diclofenac, carbamazepine, and paracetamol with improved activity being pharmaceutical specific for each enzyme. In particular, sol–gel encapsulated LiP- and HRP-based nanocomposites were active over 20 consecutive cycles for 20 days at 55 °C (24 h/cycle). The stability of the sol–gel encapsulated catalysts in acidic medium was also improved compared to native enzymes. Carbamazepine and diclofenac were degraded to 68% and 64% by sol–gel LiP composites respectively at pH 5 under elevated temperature. Total destruction of carbamazepine and diclofenac was achieved at pH 3 (55 °C) within 3 days, in the case of both immobilized HRP and LiP. Using NMR spectroscopy, characterization of the drug decomposition products, and decomposition pathways by the peroxidase enzymes suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: sol–gel silica encapsulation; horseradish peroxidase; lignin peroxidase; enzymatic drug decomposition; magnetic nano-carrier; diclofenac; paracetamol; carbamazepine sol–gel silica encapsulation; horseradish peroxidase; lignin peroxidase; enzymatic drug decomposition; magnetic nano-carrier; diclofenac; paracetamol; carbamazepine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pylypchuk, I.V.; Daniel, G.; Kessler, V.G.; Seisenbaeva, G.A. Removal of Diclofenac, Paracetamol, and Carbamazepine from Model Aqueous Solutions by Magnetic Sol–Gel Encapsulated Horseradish Peroxidase and Lignin Peroxidase Composites. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 282.

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