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J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9030045

A Decellularized Porcine Xenograft-Derived Bone Scaffold for Clinical Use as a Bone Graft Substitute: A Critical Evaluation of Processing and Structure

1
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
3
Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
4
Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
6
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract

Background: Bone grafts are used in approximately one half of all musculoskeletal surgeries. Autograft bone is the historic gold standard but is limited in supply and its harvest imparts significant morbidity to the patient. Alternative sources of bone graft include allografts, synthetics and, less commonly, xenografts which are taken from animal species. Xenografts are available in unlimited supply from healthy animal donors with controlled biology, avoiding the risk of human disease transmission, and may satisfy current demand for bone graft products. Methods: In the current study, cancellous bone was harvested from porcine femurs and subjected to a novel decellularization protocol to derive a bone scaffold. Results: The scaffold was devoid of donor cellular material on histology and DNA sampling (p < 0.01). Microarchitectural properties important for osteoconductive potential were preserved after decellularization as shown by high resolution imaging modalities. Proteomics data demonstrated similar profiles when comparing the porcine bone scaffold against commercially available human demineralized bone matrix approved for clinical use. Conclusion: We are unaware of any porcine-derived bone graft products currently used in orthopaedic surgery practice. Results from the current study suggest that porcine-derived bone scaffolds warrant further consideration to serve as a potential bone graft substitute. View Full-Text
Keywords: xenograft; scaffold; decellularized; osteoconductive; bone graft; porcine xenograft; scaffold; decellularized; osteoconductive; bone graft; porcine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bracey, D.N.; Seyler, T.M.; Jinnah, A.H.; Lively, M.O.; Willey, J.S.; Smith, T.L.; Van Dyke, M.E.; Whitlock, P.W. A Decellularized Porcine Xenograft-Derived Bone Scaffold for Clinical Use as a Bone Graft Substitute: A Critical Evaluation of Processing and Structure. J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9, 45.

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