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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2016) – 12 articles

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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Nanodiamond Reinforced Chitosan for Bone Tissue Engineering
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030027 - 15 Sep 2016
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4758
Abstract
Multifunctional tissue scaffold material nanodiamond (ND)/chitosan (CS) composites with different diamond concentrations from 1 wt % to 5 wt % were synthesized through a solution casting method. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray [...] Read more.
Multifunctional tissue scaffold material nanodiamond (ND)/chitosan (CS) composites with different diamond concentrations from 1 wt % to 5 wt % were synthesized through a solution casting method. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nanoindentation. Compared with pristine CS, the addition of ND resulted in a significant improvement of mechanical properties, including a 239%, 276%, 321%, 333%, and 343% increase in Young’s modulus and a 68%, 96%, 114%, 118%, and 127% increase in hardness when the ND amount was 1 wt %, 2 wt %, 3 wt %, 4 wt %, and 5 wt %, respectively. The strong interaction between ND surface groups and the chitosan matrix plays an important role in improving mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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Review
Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030026 - 14 Sep 2016
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 5920
Abstract
Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required [...] Read more.
Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF) is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silk Proteins for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
A Smart pH-Responsive Three Components Luminescent Hydrogel
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030025 - 12 Sep 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4218
Abstract
In this study, we report a novel three-component luminescent hydrogel, which is composed of amino acid derivatives (N,N′-di valine-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid, NVPD), riboflavin (RF), and melamine (MM). The three-component hydrogel is attributed to multiple hydrogen bonds and the strong π-π [...] Read more.
In this study, we report a novel three-component luminescent hydrogel, which is composed of amino acid derivatives (N,N′-di valine-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid, NVPD), riboflavin (RF), and melamine (MM). The three-component hydrogel is attributed to multiple hydrogen bonds and the strong π-π stacking interaction between these molecules. Based on the strong hydrogen bonding of the gelator, when the reversible process between the gel and the solution take places it changes the pH of the system from 6.1 to 10.6. In addition, green fluorescence could be the emissive of the hydrogel under 498 nm and the conversion process of the aggregation state repeated reversibly by altering the value of ambient pH. This pH-responsive luminescent gel may display potential for use in nano pH sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomedicine: Biomaterials, Nanoparticles and Beyond)
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Article
Photocrosslinkable Trehalose Derivatives Carrying Mesogenic Groups: Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Evaluation for Fibroblast Attachment
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030024 - 10 Sep 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4044
Abstract
A photocrosslinkable trehalose derivative carrying mesogenic groups was synthesized by esterification reactions. The derivative (TC-HBPHA) was synthesized by the reaction of partially cinnamoyl-modified trehalose (TC4) with 4-(4-hexyloxybenzoyloxy)phenoxy-6-oxohexanoic acid (HBPHA) as a mesogenic unit. TC-HBPHA showed a nematic liquid crystalline mesophase at a temperature [...] Read more.
A photocrosslinkable trehalose derivative carrying mesogenic groups was synthesized by esterification reactions. The derivative (TC-HBPHA) was synthesized by the reaction of partially cinnamoyl-modified trehalose (TC4) with 4-(4-hexyloxybenzoyloxy)phenoxy-6-oxohexanoic acid (HBPHA) as a mesogenic unit. TC-HBPHA showed a nematic liquid crystalline mesophase at a temperature range from 150 °C to 175 °C in the heating process under observation with a polarized optical microscope. The dimerization of the cinnamoyl groups of TC-HBPHA by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation was monitored by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The photocrosslinked film was obtained after the UV irradiation of TC-HBPHA, and it kept the liquid crystalline mesophase at almost the same temperature range. Fibroblast cells cultured on the photocrosslinked TC-HBPHA proliferated as well as on the polystyrene culture plate, indicating that the film has no toxicity. Interestingly, some cells on photocrosslinked TC-HBPHA had a spindle shape and aligned characteristically. Full article
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Article
Real-Time Protein and Cell Binding Measurements on Hydroxyapatite Coatings
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030023 - 27 Aug 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4389
Abstract
Although a lot of in vitro and in vivo assays have been performed during the last few decades years for hydroxyapatite bioactive coatings, there is a lack of exploitation of real-time in vitro interaction measurements. In the present work, real-time interactions for a [...] Read more.
Although a lot of in vitro and in vivo assays have been performed during the last few decades years for hydroxyapatite bioactive coatings, there is a lack of exploitation of real-time in vitro interaction measurements. In the present work, real-time interactions for a plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating were measured by a Multi-Parametric Surface Plasmon Resonance (MP-SPR), and the results were compared with standard traditional cell viability in vitro assays. MP-SPR is proven to be suitable not only for measurement of molecule–molecule interactions but also molecule–material interaction measurements and cell interaction. Although SPR is extensively utilized in interaction studies, recent research of protein or cell adsorption on hydroxyapatite coatings for prostheses applications was not found. The as-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating resulted in 62.4% of crystalline phase and an average thickness of 24 ± 6 μm. The MP-SPR was used to measure lysozyme protein and human mesenchymal stem cells interaction to the hydroxyapatite coating. A comparison between the standard gold sensor and Hydroxyapatite (HA)-plasma coated sensor denoted a clearly favourable cell attachment on HA coated sensor as a significantly higher signal of cell binding was detected. Moreover, traditional cell viability and proliferation tests showed increased activity with culture time indicating that cells were proliferating on HA coating. Cells show homogeneous distribution and proliferation along the HA surface between one and seven days with no significant mortality. Cells were flattened and spread on rough surfaces from the first day, with increasing cytoplasmatic extensions during the culture time. Full article
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Review
Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030022 - 05 Aug 2016
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 5758
Abstract
Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, [...] Read more.
Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world’s best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silk Proteins for Biomedical Applications)
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Article
pH-Responsive PLGA Nanoparticle for Controlled Payload Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030021 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 5919
Abstract
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nanoparticles have gained increasing attention in delivery applications due to their capability for controlled drug release characteristics, biocompatibility, and tunable mechanical, as well as degradation, properties. However, thorough study is always required while evaluating potential toxicity of the particles [...] Read more.
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nanoparticles have gained increasing attention in delivery applications due to their capability for controlled drug release characteristics, biocompatibility, and tunable mechanical, as well as degradation, properties. However, thorough study is always required while evaluating potential toxicity of the particles from dose dumping, inconsistent release and drug-polymer interactions. In this research, we developed PLGA nanoparticles modified by chitosan (CS), a cationic and pH responsive polysaccharide that bears repetitive amine groups in its backbone. We used a model drug, diclofenac sodium (DS), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), to study the drug loading and release characteristics. PLGA nanoparticles were synthesized by double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were evaluated based on their particle size, surface charge, entrapment efficacy, and effect of pH in drug release profile. About 390–420 nm of average diameters and uniform morphology of the particles were confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement. Chitosan coating over PLGA surface was confirmed by FTIR and DLS. Drug entrapment efficacy was up to 52%. Chitosan coated PLGA showed a pH responsive drug release in in vitro. The release was about 45% more at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.4. The results of our study indicated the development of chitosan coating over PLGA nanoparticle for pH dependent controlled release DS drug for therapeutic applications. Full article
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Reply
In Response to Michael Wininger’s Commentary: Common Roadblocks for Biomaterials Metrologists
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030020 - 27 Jul 2016
Viewed by 3103
Abstract
I welcome Wininger’s commentary [1], and I would like to take the opportunity to address some of the issues raised.[...] Full article
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Review
Stimuli-Responsive Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030019 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4587
Abstract
An emerging concept is that cancers strongly depend on both internal and external signals for growth and invasion. In this review, we will discuss pathological and physical changes in the tumor microenvironment and how these changes can be exploited to design gold nanoparticles [...] Read more.
An emerging concept is that cancers strongly depend on both internal and external signals for growth and invasion. In this review, we will discuss pathological and physical changes in the tumor microenvironment and how these changes can be exploited to design gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and therapy. These intrinsic changes include extracellular and intracellular pH, extracellular matrix enzymes, and glutathione concentration. External stimuli include the application of laser, ultrasound and X-ray. The biology behind these changes and the chemistry behind the responding mechanisms to these changes are reviewed. Examples of recent in vitro and in vivo studies are also presented, and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials Approaches for Cancer Research)
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Review
Effect of Nanoparticle Incorporation and Surface Coating on Mechanical Properties of Bone Scaffolds: A Brief Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030018 - 12 Jul 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4240
Abstract
Mechanical properties of a scaffold play an important role in its in vivo performance in bone tissue engineering, due to the fact that implanted scaffolds are typically subjected to stress including compression, tension, torsion, and shearing. Unfortunately, not all the materials used to [...] Read more.
Mechanical properties of a scaffold play an important role in its in vivo performance in bone tissue engineering, due to the fact that implanted scaffolds are typically subjected to stress including compression, tension, torsion, and shearing. Unfortunately, not all the materials used to fabricate scaffolds are strong enough to mimic native bones. Extensive research has been conducted in order to increase scaffold strength and mechanical performance by incorporating nanoparticles and/or coatings. An incredible improvement has been achieved; and some outstanding examples are the usage of nanodiamond, hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass particles, SiO2, MgO, and silver nanoparticles. This review paper aims to present the results, to summarize significant findings, and to give perspective for future work, which could be beneficial to future bone tissue engineering. Full article
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Article
Synchrotron-Based in Situ Characterization of the Scaffold Mass Loss from Erosion Degradation
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030017 - 05 Jul 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4317
Abstract
The mass loss behavior of degradable tissue scaffolds is critical to their lifespan and other degradation-related properties including mechanical strength and mass transport characteristics. This paper presents a novel method based on synchrotron imaging to characterize the scaffold mass loss from erosion degradation [...] Read more.
The mass loss behavior of degradable tissue scaffolds is critical to their lifespan and other degradation-related properties including mechanical strength and mass transport characteristics. This paper presents a novel method based on synchrotron imaging to characterize the scaffold mass loss from erosion degradation in situ, or without the need of extracting scaffolds once implanted. Specifically, the surface-eroding degradation of scaffolds in a degrading medium was monitored in situ by synchrotron-based imaging; and the time-dependent geometry of scaffolds captured by images was then employed to estimate their mass loss with time, based on the mathematical model that was adopted from the literature of surface erosion with the experimentally-identified model parameters. Acceptable agreement between experimental results and model predictions was observed for scaffolds in a cylindrical shape, made from poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This study illustrates that geometry evaluation by synchrotron-based imaging is an effective means to in situ characterize the scaffold mass loss as well as possibly other degradation-related properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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Review
A Review of Glass-Ionomer Cements for Clinical Dentistry
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7030016 - 28 Jun 2016
Cited by 159 | Viewed by 12551
Abstract
This article is an updated review of the published literature on glass-ionomer cements and covers their structure, properties and clinical uses within dentistry, with an emphasis on findings from the last five years or so. Glass-ionomers are shown to set by an acid-base [...] Read more.
This article is an updated review of the published literature on glass-ionomer cements and covers their structure, properties and clinical uses within dentistry, with an emphasis on findings from the last five years or so. Glass-ionomers are shown to set by an acid-base reaction within 2–3 min and to form hard, reasonably strong materials with acceptable appearance. They release fluoride and are bioactive, so that they gradually develop a strong, durable interfacial ion-exchange layer at the interface with the tooth, which is responsible for their adhesion. Modified forms of glass-ionomers, namely resin-modified glass-ionomers and glass carbomer, are also described and their properties and applications covered. Physical properties of the resin-modified glass-ionomers are shown to be good, and comparable with those of conventional glass-ionomers, but biocompatibility is somewhat compromised by the presence of the resin component, 2 hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Properties of glass carbomer appear to be slightly inferior to those of the best modern conventional glass-ionomers, and there is not yet sufficient information to determine how their bioactivity compares, although they have been formulated to enhance this particular feature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Biocements for Medical/Dental Purposes)
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