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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Fibrochondrocyte Growth and Functionality on TiO2 Nanothin Films
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7020015
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3009 | PDF Full-text (2248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Disorders affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are a long-standing health concern. TMJ disorders (TMJD) are often associated with an internal disc derangement accompanied by a suite of symptoms including joint noises, jaw dysfunction, and severe pain. The severity of patient symptoms and their [...] Read more.
Disorders affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are a long-standing health concern. TMJ disorders (TMJD) are often associated with an internal disc derangement accompanied by a suite of symptoms including joint noises, jaw dysfunction, and severe pain. The severity of patient symptoms and their reoccurrence can be alleviated to some extent with conservative therapy; however, refractory cases often require surgery that has shown only limited success. Bioengineered scaffolds with cell supportive surfaces an d nanoarchitectures that mimic TMJ tissue structure may offer an alternative treatment modality. In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanothin films, fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly, were examined as means for creating such a scaffold. The viability and growth of TMJ discal fibrochondrocytes (FCs) were assessed through MTT and DNA assays and total protein content over a 14-day experimental period. ELISA was also used to measure expression of types I and II collagen, decorin and aggrecan. Quantitative analyses demonstrated that FCs synthesized characteristic discal matrix proteins, with an increased production of type I collagen and decorin as opposed to collagen type II and aggrecan. A stimulatory effect on discal FC proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) expression with thicker nanofilms was also observed. The cumulative results suggest that TiO2 nanofilms may have potential as a TMJ scaffolding material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7020014
Received: 23 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3048 | PDF Full-text (2428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheet on the tensile mechanical properties [...] Read more.
A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Properties of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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Open AccessReview
Keratoprosthesis: A Review of Recent Advances in the Field
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7020013
Received: 27 March 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3533 | PDF Full-text (4031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since its discovery in the years of the French Revolution, the field of keratoprostheses has evolved significantly. However, the path towards its present state has not always been an easy one. Initially discarded for its devastating complications, the introduction of new materials and [...] Read more.
Since its discovery in the years of the French Revolution, the field of keratoprostheses has evolved significantly. However, the path towards its present state has not always been an easy one. Initially discarded for its devastating complications, the introduction of new materials and the discovery of antibiotics in the last century gave new life to the field. Since then, the use of keratoprostheses for severe ocular surface disorders and corneal opacities has increased significantly, to the point that it has become a standard procedure for corneal specialists worldwide. Although the rate of complications has significantly been reduced, these can impede the long-term success, since some of them can be visually devastating. In an attempt to overcome these complications, researchers in the field have been recently working on improving the design of the currently available devices, by introducing the use of new materials that are more biocompatible with the eye. Here we present an update on the most recent research in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corneal Disease and Biomaterials)
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Open AccessComment
Common Roadblocks for Biomaterials Metrologists
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7020012
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2590 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this issue, Naylor et al. [1] report on the surface topography of prosthetic phalanges, important research that is increasingly vital to researchers and clinicians alike.[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7020011
Received: 26 January 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3956 | PDF Full-text (11652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA) for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for [...] Read more.
Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA) for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM), biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap® technology by the authors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silver-Doped Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements with Antibacterial Properties
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7020010
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 April 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3204 | PDF Full-text (5288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) with antibacterial properties are demanded for clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrated the use of a relatively simple processing route based on preparation of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag) through the preparation of solid dispersed active powder phase. Real-time [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) with antibacterial properties are demanded for clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrated the use of a relatively simple processing route based on preparation of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag) through the preparation of solid dispersed active powder phase. Real-time monitoring of structural transformations and kinetics of several CPCs-Ag formulations (Ag = 0 wt %, 0.6 wt % and 1.0 wt %) was performed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction technique. The partial conversion of β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) phase into the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) took place in all the investigated cement systems. In the pristine cement powders, Ag in its metallic form was found, whereas for CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, CaAg(PO3)3 was detected and Ag (met.) was no longer present. The CPC-Ag 0 wt % cement exhibited a compressive strength of 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas for the doped cements (CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt %) the reduced values of the compressive strength 4.0 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively, were detected. Silver-ion release from CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, measured by the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, corresponds to the average values of 25 µg/L and 43 µg/L, respectively, rising a plateau after 15 days. The results of the antibacterial test proved the inhibitory effect towards pathogenic Escherichia coli for both CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, better performances being observed for the cement with a higher Ag-content. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Biocements for Medical/Dental Purposes)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Surface Topography of Pyrolytic Carbon Finger Prostheses through Measurement of Various Roughness Parameters
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7020009
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 6 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2761 | PDF Full-text (3593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The articulating surfaces of four different sizes of unused pyrolytic carbon proximal interphalangeal prostheses (PIP) were evaluated though measuring several topographical parameters using a white light interferometer: average roughness (Sa); root mean-square roughness (Sq); skewness (S [...] Read more.
The articulating surfaces of four different sizes of unused pyrolytic carbon proximal interphalangeal prostheses (PIP) were evaluated though measuring several topographical parameters using a white light interferometer: average roughness (Sa); root mean-square roughness (Sq); skewness (Ssk); and kurtosis (Sku). The radii of the articulating surfaces were measured using a coordinate measuring machine, and were found to be: 2.5, 3.3, 4.2 and 4.7 mm for proximal, and 4.0, 5.1, 5.6 and 6.3 mm for medial components. ANOVA was used to assess the relationship between the component radii and each roughness parameter. Sa, Sq and Ssk correlated negatively with radius (p = 0.001, 0.001, 0.023), whilst Sku correlated positively with radius (p = 0.03). Ergo, the surfaces with the largest radii possessed the better topographical characteristics: low roughness, negative skewness, high kurtosis. Conversely, the surfaces with the smallest radii had poorer topographical characteristics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Glass Polyalkenoate Cements Designed for Cranioplasty Applications: An Evaluation of Their Physical and Mechanical Properties
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7020008
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2758 | PDF Full-text (5677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential for skeletal cementation. Unfortunately, commercial GPCs all contain, and subsequently release, aluminum ions, which have been implicated in degenerative brain disease. The purpose of this research was to create a series of aluminum-free GPCs constructed from silicate [...] Read more.
Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential for skeletal cementation. Unfortunately, commercial GPCs all contain, and subsequently release, aluminum ions, which have been implicated in degenerative brain disease. The purpose of this research was to create a series of aluminum-free GPCs constructed from silicate (SiO2), calcium (CaO), zinc (ZnO) and sodium (Na2O)-containing glasses mixed with poly-acrylic acid (PAA) and to evaluate the potential of these cements for cranioplasty applications. Three glasses were formulated based on the SiO2-CaO-ZnO-Na2O parent glass (KBT01) with 0.03 mol % (KBT02) and 0.06 mol % (KBT03) germanium (GeO2) substituted for ZnO. Each glass was then mixed with 50 wt % of a patented SiO2-CaO-ZnO-strontium (SrO) glass composition and the resultant mixtures were subsequently reacted with aqueous PAA (50 wt % addition) to produce three GPCs. The incorporation of Ge in the glass phase was found to result in decreased working (142 s to 112 s) and setting (807 s to 448 s) times for the cements manufactured from them, likely due to the increase in crosslink formation between the Ge-containing glasses and the PAA. Compressive (σc) and biaxial flexural (σf) strengths of the cements were examined at 1, 7 and 30 days post mixing and were found to increase with both maturation and Ge content. The bonding strength of a titanium cylinder (Ti) attached to bone by the cements increased from 0.2 MPa, when placed, to 0.6 MPa, after 14 days maturation. The results of this research indicate that Germano-Silicate based GPCs have suitable handling and mechanical properties for cranioplasty fixation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Biocements for Medical/Dental Purposes)
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J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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