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Open AccessArticle

Item Response Theory Applied to the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in Portuguese

Hospital Clementino Fraga, João Pessoa, Paraíba 58015-270, Brazil
Sciences of Religions Department, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba 58050-085, Brazil
Social Psychology Post-Graduation Program, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba 58050-085, Brazil
Interdisciplinary Medical Anthropologic Studies and Research Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20211-040, Brazil
Professorship Quality of Life, Spirituality and Coping, Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke University, 58313 Herdecke, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2020, 11(3), 139;
Received: 4 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
The item response theory (IRT), or latent trace theory, is based on a set of mathematical models to complement the qualitative analysis of the items in a given questionnaire. This study analyzes the items of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in the Portuguese version, applied to HIV+ patients, with R Studio 3.4.1, mirt statistical package, to find out if the items of the SpNQ possess appropriate psychometric qualities to discriminate between respondents as to the probability of marking one answer and not another, in the same item, showing whether or not the questionnaire is biased towards a pattern of response desired by the researcher. The parameters of discrimination, difficulty, information, and the characteristic curve of the items are evaluated. The reliable items to measure the constructs of each of the five dimensions of the SpNQ of this HIV+ sample (Religious Needs; Inner Peace and Family Support Needs; Existential Needs; Social Recognition Needs; and Time Domain Needs) are presented, as well as the most likely response categories, depending on the latent trace level of the individuals. The questionnaire items showed satisfactory discrimination and variability of difficulty, confirming the good psychometric quality of SpNQ. View Full-Text
Keywords: religiosity; spirituality; SpNQ; item response theory; psychometry religiosity; spirituality; SpNQ; item response theory; psychometry
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Oliveira da Silva, C.A.; Rodrigues Cavalcanti, A.P.; da Silva Lima, K.; Macêdo Cavalcanti, C.A.; de Oliveira Valente, T.C.; Büssing, A. Item Response Theory Applied to the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in Portuguese. Religions 2020, 11, 139.

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