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Communication

First Report on the Mechanisms of Insecticide Resistance in Field Populations of the Small Hive Beetle in Florida

1
Center for Biological Control, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
2
Center for Viticulture and Small Fruits Research, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32308, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Andolfi
Agriculture 2021, 11(6), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060559
Received: 13 May 2021 / Revised: 10 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Protection, Diseases, Pest and Weeds)
The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honeybees for pollination. The small hive beetle not only causes significant damage to honeybees by feeding on pollen and honey, attacking bee brood and causing stored honey to ferment, but also might serve as a vector of diseases. In addition, the small hive beetle has developed resistance to the pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides registered for control of honeybee pests in the United States. The development of resistance in small hive beetle populations is a great concern to the beekeeping industry; thus, there is an urgent need for strategies to manage that resistance. Therefore, we used synergist probes to determine the mechanisms of resistance in a small hive beetle population to these insecticides. Our studies on the toxicity of insecticides alone or with the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithionate (DEF) suggested that mixed-function oxidases and esterases were the major resistance factors to these insecticides in a studied population of the small hive beetle. In contrast, there was no synergism with diethyl maleate (DEM), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and formamidine. Therefore, glutathione-S-transferase, carboxylesterase and target site were not involved in insecticide resistance in the small hive beetle. Rotation of classes of insecticides (with different modes of action) and metabolic synergists were suggested for the development of successful resistance management programs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the mechanisms of resistance in small hive beetle populations in Florida and suggests an urgent need for alternative control strategies for these serious pests of honeybee colonies. View Full-Text
Keywords: honeybee; small hive beetle; insecticide resistance; mechanisms of resistance; beekeeping honeybee; small hive beetle; insecticide resistance; mechanisms of resistance; beekeeping
MDPI and ACS Style

Kanga, L.H.B.; Marechal, W.; Ananga, A. First Report on the Mechanisms of Insecticide Resistance in Field Populations of the Small Hive Beetle in Florida. Agriculture 2021, 11, 559. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060559

AMA Style

Kanga LHB, Marechal W, Ananga A. First Report on the Mechanisms of Insecticide Resistance in Field Populations of the Small Hive Beetle in Florida. Agriculture. 2021; 11(6):559. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060559

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanga, Lambert H.B., Walker Marechal, and Anthony Ananga. 2021. "First Report on the Mechanisms of Insecticide Resistance in Field Populations of the Small Hive Beetle in Florida" Agriculture 11, no. 6: 559. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060559

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