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Open AccessArticle

Association between Hyperacusis and Tinnitus

1
Laboratory of Experimental Audiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
2
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Ropewalk House, Nottingham NG1 5DU, UK
3
Hearing Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
4
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, 20156 Milan, Italy
5
Hörsel och balansmottagningen, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
6
Otology & Neurotology Group, Department of Genomic Medicine, Pfizer-Universidad de Granada-Junta de Andalucía Centro de Genómica e Investigación Oncológica (GENYO), PTS, Avenida de la Ilustración 114, 18016 Granada, Spain
7
Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Instituto de Investigacion Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, 18012 Granada, Spain
8
Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
9
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082412
Received: 1 July 2020 / Accepted: 23 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Treatments and Diagnosis for Chronic Tinnitus)
Many individuals with tinnitus report experiencing hyperacusis (enhanced sensitivity to sounds). However, estimates of the association between hyperacusis and tinnitus is lacking. Here, we investigate this relationship in a Swedish study. A total of 3645 participants (1984 with tinnitus and 1661 without tinnitus) were enrolled via LifeGene, a study from the general Swedish population, aged 18–90 years, and provided information on socio-demographic characteristics, as well as presence of hyperacusis and its severity. Tinnitus presence and severity were self-reported or assessed using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). Phenotypes of tinnitus with (n = 1388) or without (n = 1044) hyperacusis were also compared. Of 1661 participants without tinnitus, 1098 (66.1%) were women and 563 were men (33.9%), and the mean (SD) age was 45.1 (12.9). Of 1984 participants with tinnitus, 1034 (52.1%) were women and 950 (47.9%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 47.7 (14.0) years. Hyperacusis was associated with any tinnitus [Odds ratio (OR) 3.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.99–4.13], self-reported severe tinnitus (OR 7.43, 95% CI 5.06–10.9), and THI ≥ 58 (OR 12.1, 95% CI 7.06–20.6). The association with THI ≥ 58 was greater with increasing severity of hyperacusis, the ORs being 8.15 (95% CI 4.68–14.2) for moderate and 77.4 (95% CI 35.0–171.3) for severe hyperacusis. No difference between sexes was observed in the association between hyperacusis and tinnitus. The occurrence of hyperacusis in severe tinnitus is as high as 80%, showing a very tight relationship. Discriminating the pathophysiological mechanisms between the two conditions in cases of severe tinnitus will be challenging, and optimized study designs are necessary to better understand the mechanisms behind the strong relationship between hyperacusis and tinnitus. View Full-Text
Keywords: tinnitus; hyperacusis; TMJ; headache; migraine; hearing loss; subtype; somatosensory tinnitus; hyperacusis; TMJ; headache; migraine; hearing loss; subtype; somatosensory
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Cederroth, C.R.; Lugo, A.; Edvall, N.K.; Lazar, A.; Lopez-Escamez, J.-A.; Bulla, J.; Uhlen, I.; Hoare, D.J.; Baguley, D.M.; Canlon, B.; Gallus, S. Association between Hyperacusis and Tinnitus. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2412.

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