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Open AccessArticle

Hippocampal Volume in Provisional Tic Disorder Predicts Tic Severity at 12-Month Follow-up

1
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
2
Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
3
Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
5
Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
6
Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
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Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061715
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 3 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatry)
Previous studies have investigated differences in the volumes of subcortical structures (e.g., caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus) between individuals with and without Tourette syndrome (TS), as well as the relationships between these volumes and tic symptom severity. These volumes may also predict clinical outcome in Provisional Tic Disorder (PTD), but that hypothesis has never been tested. This study aimed to examine whether the volumes of subcortical structures measured shortly after tic onset can predict tic symptom severity at one-year post-tic onset, when TS can first be diagnosed. We obtained T1-weighted structural MRI scans from 41 children with PTD (25 with prospective motion correction (vNavs)) whose tics had begun less than 9 months (mean 4.04 months) prior to the first study visit (baseline). We re-examined them at the 12-month anniversary of their first tic (follow-up), assessing tic severity using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. We quantified the volumes of subcortical structures using volBrain software. Baseline hippocampal volume was correlated with tic severity at the 12-month follow-up, with a larger hippocampus at baseline predicting worse tic severity at follow-up. The volumes of other subcortical structures did not significantly predict tic severity at follow-up. Hippocampal volume may be an important marker in predicting prognosis in Provisional Tic Disorder. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tourette syndrome; tic disorders; Provisional Tic Disorder; hippocampus; prognosis Tourette syndrome; tic disorders; Provisional Tic Disorder; hippocampus; prognosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, S.; Greene, D.J.; D’Andrea, C.B.; Bihun, E.C.; Koller, J.M.; O’Reilly, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Black, K.J. Hippocampal Volume in Provisional Tic Disorder Predicts Tic Severity at 12-Month Follow-up. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1715. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061715

AMA Style

Kim S, Greene DJ, D’Andrea CB, Bihun EC, Koller JM, O’Reilly B, Schlaggar BL, Black KJ. Hippocampal Volume in Provisional Tic Disorder Predicts Tic Severity at 12-Month Follow-up. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(6):1715. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061715

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Soyoung; Greene, Deanna J.; D’Andrea, Carolina B.; Bihun, Emily C.; Koller, Jonathan M.; O’Reilly, Bridget; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Black, Kevin J. 2020. "Hippocampal Volume in Provisional Tic Disorder Predicts Tic Severity at 12-Month Follow-up" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 6: 1715. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061715

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