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Prognostic Value of Non-Contrast CT Markers and Spot Sign for Outcome Prediction in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage under Oral Anticoagulation
Open AccessReview

Neuroimaging of Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Department of Neuroradiology, Clinic for Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Division of Child Neurology, Department of Neurology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA
Pediatric Radiology Department, Necker Enfants Malades & GHU Paris, Sainte-Anne Hospital, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris (IPNP), UMR S1266, INSERM, Université de Paris, 75015 Paris, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1518;
Received: 16 April 2020 / Revised: 8 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical and Neuroimaging Characteristics)
Hemorrhagic strokes account for half of all strokes seen in children, and the etiologies of these hemorrhagic strokes differ greatly from those seen in adult patients. This review gives an overview about incidence and etiologies as well as presentation of children with intracerebral hemorrhage and with differential diagnoses in the emergency department. Most importantly it describes how neuroimaging of children with intracerebral hemorrhage should be tailored to specific situations and clinical contexts and recommends specific imaging protocols for acute and repeat imaging. In this context it is important to keep in mind the high prevalence of underlying vascular lesions and adapt the imaging protocol accordingly, meaning that vascular imaging plays a key role regardless of modality. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including advanced sequences, should be favored whenever possible at the acute phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroimaging; intracerebral haemorrhage; paediatric stroke neuroimaging; intracerebral haemorrhage; paediatric stroke
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sporns, P.B.; Psychogios, M.-N.; Fullerton, H.J.; Lee, S.; Naggara, O.; Boulouis, G. Neuroimaging of Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1518.

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