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Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) in Humans: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis

University Hospital and School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30130-100, Brazil
Cochrane Croatia, University of Split School of Medicine, Split 21000, Croatia
Department of Sport and Health Science, Technische Universität München, 80333 Munich, Germany
Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo 00700, Sri Lanka
School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia
Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka
Cochrane Iran Associate Centre, National Institute for Medical Research Development, Tehran 16846, Iran
Cochrane Brazil, Evidence-Based Health Program, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo 04021-001, Brazil
Cochrane Brazil, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo 04057-000, Brazil
Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, SE-221-00 Lund, Sweden
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
The George Institute for Global Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100088, China
Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430070, China
Helene Fuld Health Trust National Institute for Evidence-based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare, College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
School of Nursing, Psychotherapy and Community Health, Dublin City University, D04V1W8 Dublin, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 941;
Received: 5 March 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 30 March 2020
A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-effects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%–99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%–81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%–55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%–41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%–23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%–17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%–17%, n = 1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 × 109/L, 95% CI 0.83–1.03 × 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54–45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%–1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay. View Full-Text
Keywords: novel coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; scoping review; meta-analysis novel coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; scoping review; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borges do Nascimento, I.J.; Cacic, N.; Abdulazeem, H.M.; von Groote, T.C.; Jayarajah, U.; Weerasekara, I.; Esfahani, M.A.; Civile, V.T.; Marusic, A.; Jeroncic, A.; Carvas Junior, N.; Pericic, T.P.; Zakarija-Grkovic, I.; Meirelles Guimarães, S.M.; Luigi Bragazzi, N.; Bjorklund, M.; Sofi-Mahmudi, A.; Altujjar, M.; Tian, M.; Arcani, D.M.C.; O’Mathúna, D.P.; Marcolino, M.S. Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) in Humans: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 941.

AMA Style

Borges do Nascimento IJ, Cacic N, Abdulazeem HM, von Groote TC, Jayarajah U, Weerasekara I, Esfahani MA, Civile VT, Marusic A, Jeroncic A, Carvas Junior N, Pericic TP, Zakarija-Grkovic I, Meirelles Guimarães SM, Luigi Bragazzi N, Bjorklund M, Sofi-Mahmudi A, Altujjar M, Tian M, Arcani DMC, O’Mathúna DP, Marcolino MS. Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) in Humans: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(4):941.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borges do Nascimento, Israel J., Nensi Cacic, Hebatullah M. Abdulazeem, Thilo C. von Groote, Umesh Jayarajah, Ishanka Weerasekara, Meisam A. Esfahani, Vinicius T. Civile, Ana Marusic, Ana Jeroncic, Nelson Carvas Junior, Tina P. Pericic, Irena Zakarija-Grkovic, Silvana M. Meirelles Guimarães, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Maria Bjorklund, Ahmad Sofi-Mahmudi, Mohammad Altujjar, Maoyi Tian, Diana M.C. Arcani, Dónal P. O’Mathúna, and Milena S. Marcolino. 2020. "Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) in Humans: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 4: 941.

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