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Open AccessArticle

Accuracy Assessment of Molded, Patient-Specific Polymethylmethacrylate Craniofacial Implants Compared to Their 3D Printed Originals

1
Department of Oral and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland
2
Medical Additive Manufacturing Research Group (Swiss MAM), Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, CH-4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
3
Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Bilal Msallem and Dave Chamo contributed equally to this manuscript and should be considered co-first authors.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030832
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology, Significance and Complications of Orthopaedic Trauma)
The use of patient-specific implants (PSIs) in craniofacial surgery is often limited due to a lack of expertise and/or production costs. Therefore, a simple and cost-efficient template-based fabrication workflow has been developed to overcome these disadvantages. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of PSIs made from their original templates. For a representative cranial defect (CRD) and a temporo-orbital defect (TOD), ten PSIs were made from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using computer-aided design (CAD) and three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. These customized implants were measured and compared with their original 3D printed templates. The implants for the CRD revealed a root mean square (RMS) value ranging from 1.128 to 0.469 mm with a median RMS (Q1 to Q3) of 0.574 (0.528 to 0.701) mm. Those for the TOD revealed an RMS value ranging from 1.079 to 0.630 mm with a median RMS (Q1 to Q3) of 0.843 (0.635 to 0.943) mm. This study demonstrates that a highly precise duplication of PSIs can be achieved using this template-molding workflow. Thus, virtually planned implants can be accurately transferred into haptic PSIs. This workflow appears to offer a sophisticated solution for craniofacial reconstruction and continues to prove itself in daily clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; accuracy; additive manufacturing; craniofacial reconstruction; cranioplasty; molding; patient-specific implant; PMMA 3D printing; accuracy; additive manufacturing; craniofacial reconstruction; cranioplasty; molding; patient-specific implant; PMMA
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Chamo, D.; Msallem, B.; Sharma, N.; Aghlmandi, S.; Kunz, C.; Thieringer, F.M. Accuracy Assessment of Molded, Patient-Specific Polymethylmethacrylate Craniofacial Implants Compared to Their 3D Printed Originals. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 832.

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