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Open AccessArticle

Novel Biochemical Markers of Neurovascular Complications in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, Mickiewicza 2, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-834 Poznan, Poland
2
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Przybyszewskiego 49, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-355 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010198
Received: 15 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Diabetes on Neurodegenerative and Neurovascular Changes)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with chronic complications, which are the result of neurovascular changes. There is still a lack of universal biochemical markers of microvascular damage. The present study aimed to investigate whether selected inflammatory proteins are related to the prevalence of microvascular complications in adult T1DM patients. The following markers were determined in a group of 100 T1DM participants: epidermal growth factor (EGF), metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), and interleukin 29 (IL-29). Screening for microvascular complications, such as autonomic and peripheral neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease, and retinopathy, was conducted. The group was divided according to the occurrence of microvascular complications. At least one complication was required for the patient to be included in the microangiopathy group. The median EGF concentration in the microangiopathy group was higher than in the group without microangiopathy (p = 0.03). Increasing EGF concentration was a statistically significant predictor of the presence of microangiopathy in multivariate logistic regression analysis (p < 0.0001). Additionally, a higher GDF-15 level was associated with diabetic kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, and proliferative retinopathy vs. nonproliferative retinopathy. GDF-15 concentration correlated negatively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = −0.28; p = 0.02). To conclude, higher EGF concentration is an independent predictor of the presence of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. Besides the relation between GDF-15 and diabetic kidney disease, it may be also associated with peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus, neurovascular, microvascular, epidermal growth factor, growth/differentiation factor 15, interleukin 29, EGF, GDF-15 type 1 diabetes mellitus, neurovascular, microvascular, epidermal growth factor, growth/differentiation factor 15, interleukin 29, EGF, GDF-15
MDPI and ACS Style

Falkowski, B.; Rogowicz-Frontczak, A.; Szczepanek-Parulska, E.; Krygier, A.; Wrotkowska, E.; Uruska, A.; Araszkiewicz, A.; Ruchala, M.; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, D. Novel Biochemical Markers of Neurovascular Complications in Type 1 Diabetes Patients. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 198.

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