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Cognitive Reserve Assessment Scale in Health (CRASH): Its Validity and Reliability

1
Barcelona Clinic Schizophrenia Unit, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Neuroscience Institute, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
2
Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health (CIBERSAM), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
4
August Pi I Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
5
Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit, Institute of Neurosciences, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
6
Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre 90035-003, Brazil
7
Postgraduate Program: Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil
8
Department of Pharmacology and Postgraduate Program: Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil
9
Psychiatry Department, Bellvitge University Hospital-IDIBELL, 08907 L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
10
Hospital Universitari Mutua Terrassa, 08221 Terrassa, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050586
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Cognitive Functioning in People with Schizophrenia)
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Abstract

(1) Background: The cognitive reserve (CR) concept has not been precisely defined in severe mental disorders and has been estimated using heterogeneous methods. This study aims to investigate and develop the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Reserve Assessment Scale in Health (CRASH), an instrument designed to measure CR in people with severe mental illness; (2) Methods: 100 patients with severe mental illness (non-affective psychoses and affective disorders) and 66 healthy controls were included. The internal consistency and convergent validity of CRASH were assessed. Spearman’s correlations coefficients were also performed to examine the relationship between CRASH and neuropsychological tests, psychosocial functioning, and clinical course; (3) Results: The internal consistency was high (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = 0.903). The CRASH global score had a large positive correlation with the Cognitive reserve questionnaire total score (r = 0.838, p < 0.001), demonstrating good convergent validity. The correlation coefficients between the CRASH total scores and clinical, functional, and neuropsychological performance were different between groups. In order to provide clinical interpretation, severity classification based on diagnosis (non-affective psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and healthy controls) have been created; (4) Conclusions: CRASH is the first CR measure developed specifically for patients with severe mental illness, facilitating reliable and valid measurement of this construct. The scale may aid in the stratification of patients and the implementation of personalized interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive reserve; cognition; assessment; reliability; validity; severe mental illness; affective disorders; non-affective psychosis; psychosocial functioning cognitive reserve; cognition; assessment; reliability; validity; severe mental illness; affective disorders; non-affective psychosis; psychosocial functioning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Amoretti, S.; Cabrera, B.; Torrent, C.; Bonnín, C.M.; Mezquida, G.; Garriga, M.; Jiménez, E.; Martínez-Arán, A.; Solé, B.; Reinares, M.; Varo, C.; Penadés, R.; Grande, I.; Salagre, E.; Parellada, E.; Bioque, M.; Garcia-Rizo, C.; Meseguer, A.; Anmella, G.; Rosa, A.R.; Contreras, F.; Safont, G.; Vieta, E.; Bernardo, M. Cognitive Reserve Assessment Scale in Health (CRASH): Its Validity and Reliability. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 586.

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