Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of standard practice Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging, as a complement to coronary angiography (CA), for optimizing the indications, strategy, and results of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients with OCT imaging in a single tertiary center. Results: OCT use had a low prevalence (3.1% of 4256 CAs and 1.7% of 3027 PCIs). OCT was used post-CA in 71.5% and post-PCI in 28.5% of cases, mainly in acute coronary syndromes—95.6%. OCT was performed for borderline lesions in 43.4% of cases; lesion severity was reassessed as severe and led to PCI in 64.5% of them. OCT was performed for nonsignificant lesions in 17% of cases; lesion severity was reassessed as severe and led to PCI in 38.7% of them. OCT provided optimal selection for PCI strategy in 11% of cases. OCT identified suboptimal PCI results in 54% left main PCIs and in 48% bifurcation PCIs with optimal CA; PCI optimization was performed. In the only seven patients with suboptimal PCI, OCT revealed an optimal result in four cases, thus avoiding unneccessary optimization. In 27.3% of patients with post-CA OCT and PCI result “systematic” OCT control, a PCI optimization was indicated. Conclusion: OCT supplied a major benefit in 86.2% of cases, especially by identifying significant coroanry stenosis in CA borderline and nonsignificant lesions; OCT led to PCI indication in two-thirds and, respectively, one-third of these cases. In the post-PCI context, OCT led to an indication of PCI optimization in half of the complex left main and bifurcation lesions, as well as in a quarter of “systematic” post-PCI OCT controls.
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