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J. Clin. Med., Volume 5, Issue 10 (October 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Hyponatremia Normalization on the Short-Term Mortality and Rehospitalizations in Patients with Recent Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: A Retrospective Study
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100092 - 22 Oct 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Background: Several studies have shown that hyponatremia is associated with increased risk of rehospitalization and death in patients with heart failure. In these studies, chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with persistent hyponatremia were compared only with CHF patients with a normal sodium level [...] Read more.
Background: Several studies have shown that hyponatremia is associated with increased risk of rehospitalization and death in patients with heart failure. In these studies, chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with persistent hyponatremia were compared only with CHF patients with a normal sodium level at hospital admission. Aims: In the present retrospective study, conducted in a cohort of patients with recent acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), all with hyponatremia ascertained at the time of hospital admission, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the normalization of serum sodium on the composite endpoint of short-term rehospitalization and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study centered on medical records of patients hospitalized for ADHF in the period April 2013 to April 2016 was performed. Data regarding serum sodium measurements had to be collected from medical records of cardiology wards of two hospitals, and were then processed for statistical analysis. As an inclusion criterion for enrollment, patients had to be suffering from heart failure that had required at least one hospitalization. Moreover, they had to be suffering from a state of hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mEq/L) at admission on the occasion of the index hospitalization. Patients with hyponatremia at admission were divided into two groups, one comprising patients with hyponatremia that persisted at the time of discharge (persistent hyponatremia) and a second including patients who had achieved normalization of their serum sodium levels (serum Na+ ≥ 135 mEq/L) during hospitalization until discharge. For both groups, the risk of mortality and rehospitalization during a 30-day follow-up was assessed. Results: One hundred and sixty CHF patients with various degrees of functional impairment were enrolled in the study. Among them, 56 (35%) had persistent hyponatremia over the course of hospitalization. At multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, the risk of having a 30-day unplanned readmission or death was significantly higher in patients with persistent hyponatremia compared to those who exhibited a sodium level normalized at discharge (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.0743; 95% CI: 1.3981–6.7601; p = 0.0054). Among the other variables included in the Cox regression model, the number of admissions in the last 12 months (p < 0.0001), the length of stay of the index admission (p = 0.0015) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III at discharge (p = 0.0022) were also identified as risk factors associated with the composite endpoint of 30-day unplanned readmission or death. Conclusions: In the present retrospective study, the risk of 30-day rehospitalization or death was significantly higher in patients with recent ADHF and persistent hyponatremia in comparison with ADHF patients who had had their serum sodium normalized during the hospital stay. This association seemed to be independent of the heart failure severity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Advances in Radiotherapy Management of Esophageal Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100091 - 21 Oct 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative complications and hospitalizations. Herein, discussion commences with the historical approaches to treating EC, including seminal trials supporting multimodality therapy. Subsequently, the impact of RT techniques, including three-dimensional conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, and proton beam therapy, is examined through available data. We further discuss existing data and the potential for further development in the future, with an appraisal of the future outlook of technological advancements of RT for EC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Treatment of Esophageal Cancer)
Open AccessArticle
Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100090 - 20 Oct 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of [...] Read more.
Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today) and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then). Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE) and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH) at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT). Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index). A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)
Open AccessReview
Repurposing Treatments to Enhance Innate Immunity. Can Statins Improve Neutrophil Functions and Clinical Outcomes in COPD?
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100089 - 11 Oct 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
Drug classes used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have not changed for many years, and none to date have shown disease-modifying activity. Statins are used to help reduce cardiovascular risk, which is high in many patients with COPD. Their [...] Read more.
Drug classes used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have not changed for many years, and none to date have shown disease-modifying activity. Statins are used to help reduce cardiovascular risk, which is high in many patients with COPD. Their use has been associated with improvements in some respiratory manifestations of disease and reduction in all-cause mortality, with greatest reductions seen in patients with the highest inflammatory burden. The mechanism for these effects is poorly understood. Neutrophils are key effector cells in COPD, and correlate with disease severity and inflammation. Recent in vitro studies have shown neutrophil functions are dysregulated in COPD and this is thought to contribute both to the destruction of lung parenchyma and to the poor responses seen in infective exacerbations. In this article, we will discuss the potential utility of statins in COPD, with a particular emphasis on their immune-modulatory effects as well as presenting new data regarding the effects of statins on neutrophil function in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophil Functions: From Immunity to Disease)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100088 - 09 Oct 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and [...] Read more.
This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220) with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions) project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation) identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA) and physical assault (PA). A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)
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Open AccessReview
Multiple Roles for B-Lymphocytes in Sjogren’s Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100087 - 08 Oct 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is a complex heterogeneous autoimmune disease resulting in loss of salivary gland and lacrimal gland function that may include multiple systemic manifestations including lymphoma. Multiple cell types participate in disease pathogenesis. This review discusses evidence for abnormal B cell subpopulations [...] Read more.
Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is a complex heterogeneous autoimmune disease resulting in loss of salivary gland and lacrimal gland function that may include multiple systemic manifestations including lymphoma. Multiple cell types participate in disease pathogenesis. This review discusses evidence for abnormal B cell subpopulations in patients with SS, critical roles of B cells in SS and the status of B cell–directed therapies in the management of patients with SS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B Cells in Autoimmunity)
Open AccessReview
Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists for the Correction of Hyponatremia in Chronic Heart Failure: An Underutilized Therapeutic Option in Current Clinical Practice?
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100086 - 02 Oct 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
In the congestive heart failure (CHF) setting, chronic hyponatremia is very common. The present review aims at addressing topics relevant to the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in the course of CHF as well as its optimal treatment, including the main advantages and the limitations [...] Read more.
In the congestive heart failure (CHF) setting, chronic hyponatremia is very common. The present review aims at addressing topics relevant to the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in the course of CHF as well as its optimal treatment, including the main advantages and the limitations resulting from the use of the available dietary and pharmacological measures approved for the treatment of this electrolytic trouble. A narrative review is carried out in order to represent the main modalities of therapy for chronic hyponatremia that frequently complicates CHF. The limits of usual therapies implemented for CHF-related chronic hyponatremia are outlined, while an original analysis of the main advancements achieved with the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists (VRAs) is also executed. The European regulatory restrictions that currently limit the use of VRAs in the management of CHF are substantially caused by financial concerns, i.e., the high costs of VRA therapy. A thoughtful reworking of current restrictions would be warranted in order to enable VRAs to be usefully associated to loop diuretics for decongestive treatment of CHF patients with hyponatremia. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Platypnea–Orthodeoxia Syndrome: Multiple Pathophysiological Interpretations of a Clinical Picture Primarily Consisting of Orthostatic Dyspnea
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100085 - 23 Sep 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Platypnea–orthodexia syndrome (POS) is often a challenging diagnostic problem. It is characterized by dyspnea that is accentuated by standing or sitting positions due to a marked fall in blood oxygen saturation, and instead is improved by assuming the lying position. In the present [...] Read more.
Platypnea–orthodexia syndrome (POS) is often a challenging diagnostic problem. It is characterized by dyspnea that is accentuated by standing or sitting positions due to a marked fall in blood oxygen saturation, and instead is improved by assuming the lying position. In the present brief review, the authors address the pathophysiology of POS, and outline its clinical symptoms as well as the main modalities of diagnostic evaluation and possible therapeutic options. Moreover, some problems concerning much-debated issues and persistent uncertainties about the pathophysiology of POS are presented along with the description of the diagnostic and therapeutic resources currently available for this syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5100084 - 22 Sep 2016
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4245
Abstract
Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not [...] Read more.
Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1), anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4) trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Treatment of Esophageal Cancer)
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