Next Article in Journal
Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Cytokine Storms for More Effective Treatments from an Inflammatory Pathophysiology
Previous Article in Journal
Roles of Ceramides in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Article

Proteinuria Is Associated with the Development of Crohn’s Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea
2
Department of Gastroenterology, Mediplex Sejong Hospital, Incheon 21080, Korea
3
Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Korea
4
Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea
5
Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Day
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040799
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 13 February 2021 / Accepted: 14 February 2021 / Published: 16 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
Background and Aims: The impact of proteinuria and its severity on the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been studied. We aimed to determine the association between proteinuria measured by urine dipstick tests and the development of IBD. Methods: This nationwide population-based study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. A total of 9,917,400 people aged 20 years or older who had undergone a national health examination conducted by the NHIS in 2009 were followed up until 2017. The study population was classified into four groups—negative, trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+—according to the degree of proteinuria measured by the urine dipstick test. The primary endpoint was newly diagnosed IBD, Crohn’s disease (CD), or ulcerative colitis (UC) during the follow-up period. Results: Compared with the dipstick-negative group, the incidence of CD significantly increased according to the degree of proteinuria (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] with 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 [0.703–1.451], 1.515 [1.058–2.162], and 2.053 [1.301–3.24] in the trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+ dipstick groups, respectively; p for trend 0.007). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of UC according to the degree of proteinuria (aHR with 95% CI, 1.12 [0.949–1.323], 0.947 [0.764–1.174], and 1.009 [0.741–1.373] in the trace, 1+, and ≥ 2+ dipstick groups, respectively; p for trend 0.722). In the subgroup analysis, dipstick-positive proteinuria independently increased the incidence of CD regardless of the subgroup. However, dipstick-positive proteinuria was associated with the risk of UC in those with diabetes mellitus and not in those without diabetes mellitus (aHR, 1.527 vs. 0.846; interaction p-value 0.004). The risk of CD was increased or decreased according to proteinuria changes but not associated with the risk of UC. Conclusion: Proteinuria, measured by the dipstick test, is strongly associated with the development of CD. View Full-Text
Keywords: claims data; incidence; proteinuria; Crohn’s disease claims data; incidence; proteinuria; Crohn’s disease
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Park, S.; Lee, H.J.; Han, K.-D.; Soh, H.; Moon, J.M.; Hong, S.W.; Kang, E.A.; Im, J.P.; Kim, J.S. Proteinuria Is Associated with the Development of Crohn’s Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 799. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040799

AMA Style

Park S, Lee HJ, Han K-D, Soh H, Moon JM, Hong SW, Kang EA, Im JP, Kim JS. Proteinuria Is Associated with the Development of Crohn’s Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(4):799. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040799

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Seona, Hyun J. Lee, Kyung-Do Han, Hosim Soh, Jung M. Moon, Seung W. Hong, Eun A. Kang, Jong P. Im, and Joo S. Kim 2021. "Proteinuria Is Associated with the Development of Crohn’s Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 4: 799. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040799

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop