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Article

Nanofiltration of Multi-Ion Solutions: Quantitative Control of Concentration Polarization and Interpretation by Solution-Diffusion-Electro-Migration Model

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Catalonia—BarcelonaTech, C/Eduard Maristany 10-14 (Campus Diagonal-Besòs), 08930 Barcelona, Spain
2
Barcelona Research Center on Multiscale Science and Engineering, C/Eduard Maristany, 10-14 (Campus Diagonal-Besòs), 08930 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Catalonia—BarcelonaTech, av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
4
Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies—ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wolfgang Samhaber and Mohammad Rezaei
Membranes 2021, 11(4), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11040272
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 5 April 2021 / Accepted: 5 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Phenomenological Findings in Nanofiltration)
For effective use of advanced engineering models of nanofiltration quality of experimental input is crucial, especially in electrolyte mixtures where simultaneous rejections of various ions may be very different. In particular, this concerns the quantitative control of concentration polarization (CP). This work used a rotating disklike membrane test cell with equally accessible membrane surface, so the CP extent was the same over the membrane surface. This condition, which is not satisfied in the conventional membrane test cell, made possible correcting for CP easily even in multi-ion systems. Ion rejections were studied experimentally for several dominant salts (NaCl, MgCl2, Na2SO4 and MgSO4) and trace ions (Na+, NH4+, Cl and NO3) using NF270 membrane. The solution–diffusion–electro–migration model was used to obtain ion permeances from the experimental measurements. The model could well fit the experimental data except in the case of NH4+. The correlations between the ion permeances and type of dominant salt are discussed in the context of the established mechanisms of NF such as Donnan and dielectric exclusion. The obtained information contributes to the systematic transport characterization of NF membranes and may be ultimately useful for computational fluid dynamics simulations of the performance of the membranes in various applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: concentration polarization; ion rejection; unstirred-layer thickness; ionic permeance; solution–diffusion–electromigration model concentration polarization; ion rejection; unstirred-layer thickness; ionic permeance; solution–diffusion–electromigration model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández de Labastida, M.; Yaroshchuk, A. Nanofiltration of Multi-Ion Solutions: Quantitative Control of Concentration Polarization and Interpretation by Solution-Diffusion-Electro-Migration Model. Membranes 2021, 11, 272. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11040272

AMA Style

Fernández de Labastida M, Yaroshchuk A. Nanofiltration of Multi-Ion Solutions: Quantitative Control of Concentration Polarization and Interpretation by Solution-Diffusion-Electro-Migration Model. Membranes. 2021; 11(4):272. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11040272

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernández de Labastida, Marc, and Andriy Yaroshchuk. 2021. "Nanofiltration of Multi-Ion Solutions: Quantitative Control of Concentration Polarization and Interpretation by Solution-Diffusion-Electro-Migration Model" Membranes 11, no. 4: 272. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11040272

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