Influenza is a significant public health problem and the elderly are at a greater risk of contracting the disease. The vaccination coverage of the elderly is below the Spanish target of 65% for each influenza season. The aims of this study were to report the coverage of influenza vaccination in Spain among the population aged ≥65 years and high-risk groups for suffering chronic diseases, to analyze the time trends from 2006 to 2017 and to identify the factors which affect vaccination coverage. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted including 20,753 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥65 years who had participated in the Spanish National Health Surveys in 2006, 2011/2012, and 2017. Sociodemographic, health-related variables, and influenza vaccination data were used. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the variables associated with influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccination coverage was 60%. By chronic condition, older people with high cholesterol levels and cancer had the lowest vaccination coverage (62.41% and 60.73%, respectively). This coverage declined from 2006 to 2017 in both groups. Higher influenza vaccination was associated with males, Spanish nationality, normal social support perceived, polypharmacy, worse perceived health, participation in other preventive measures, and increasing age and the number of chronic diseases.
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