Next Article in Journal
Does the Immunocompetent Status of Cancer Patients Have an Impact on Therapeutic DC Vaccination Strategies?
Previous Article in Journal
Fast Tracks and Roadblocks for Zika Vaccines
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Vaccines 2018, 6(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6040078

Impact of Out-of-Pocket Cost on Herpes Zoster Vaccine Uptake: An Observational Study in a Medicare Managed Care Population

1
Comprehensive Health Insights, Inc., a Humana Co., 515 West Market Street Louisville, KY 40202, USA
2
Merck and Co., Inc. Center for Observational & Real World Evidence, 2000 Galloping Hill Rd, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA
3
Merck Research Laboratories, 2000 Galloping Hill Rd, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA
4
Center for Value-Based Insurance Design, North Campus Research Complex, 2800 Plymouth Road, Building 16/Floor 4/Room 455S, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2800, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [210 KB, uploaded 26 November 2018]

Abstract

Herpes zoster (HZ) vaccination is approved for adults aged 50+ for the prevention of HZ, but it is underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between out-of-pocket cost and HZ vaccine utilization. Adults aged 65 or older enrolled for at least 12 months in Medicare Advantage/Part D (MAPD) and Medicare Part D only (PDP) plans from 1 January 2007 to 30 June 2014 were selected. Abandonment was defined as a reversed claim for HZ vaccine with no other paid claim within 90 days. Out-of-pocket costs used were actual amounts recorded in the claim. Overall, the HZ vaccine abandonment rate was 7.3%. Mean out-of-pocket costs were higher for individuals who abandoned versus those who did not ($88 (±$55) versus $80 (± $49)). Logistic regression indicated individuals with out-of-pocket costs of $80–$90 were 21% more likely (OR = 1.21, 1.16–1.27 95% CI), and those with out-of-pocket costs >$90 were 90% more likely (OR = 1.90, 1.85–1.96 95% CI) to abandon than those with out-of-pocket costs <$80. The models also suggested that socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities in vaccine abandonment existed. Different vaccine targeting efforts and pharmacy benefit design strategies may be needed to increase use, improve adherence, and minimize disparities. View Full-Text
Keywords: out-of-pocket costs; herpes zoster vaccine; vaccination rate; utilization; abandonment out-of-pocket costs; herpes zoster vaccine; vaccination rate; utilization; abandonment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tao, Z.; Li, Y.; Stemkowski, S.; Johnson, K.D.; Acosta, C.J.; Zhang, D.; Fendrick, A.M. Impact of Out-of-Pocket Cost on Herpes Zoster Vaccine Uptake: An Observational Study in a Medicare Managed Care Population. Vaccines 2018, 6, 78.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Vaccines EISSN 2076-393X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top