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Vaccines 2018, 6(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030053

The Vestigial Esterase Domain of Haemagglutinin of H5N1 Avian Influenza A Virus: Antigenicity and Contribution to Viral Pathogenesis

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System (NUHS), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117545, Singapore
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore117558, Singapore
3
National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu, China
4
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore 138673, Singapore
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Hemagglutinin in Influenza Viruses Infection)
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Abstract

Initial attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics to resolve influenza infections focused mainly on searching for antibodies with the potential to neutralise the virus in vitro with classical haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralisation assays. This led to the identification of many antibodies that bind to the head domain of haemagglutinin (HA), which generally have potent neutralisation capabilities that block viral entry or viral membrane fusion. However, this class of antibodies has a narrow breadth of protection in that they are usually strain-specific. This led to the emphasis on stalk-targeting antibodies, which are able to bind a broad range of viral targets that span across different influenza subtypes. Recently, a third class of antibodies targeting the vestigial esterase (VE) domain have been characterised. In this review, we describe the key features of neutralising VE-targeting antibodies and compare them with head- and stalk-class antibodies. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; neutralising antibodies; vestigial esterase; antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; pH-induced conformational changes influenza; neutralising antibodies; vestigial esterase; antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; pH-induced conformational changes
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Zheng, Z.; Paul, S.S.; Mo, X.; Yuan, Y.-R.A.; Tan, Y.-J. The Vestigial Esterase Domain of Haemagglutinin of H5N1 Avian Influenza A Virus: Antigenicity and Contribution to Viral Pathogenesis. Vaccines 2018, 6, 53.

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