Acceptance or Rejection of the COVID-19 Vaccine: A Study on Iranian People’s Opinions toward the COVID-19 Vaccine
2.4. Qualitative Part
2.5. Data Analysis
3.1. Attitude toward COVID-19 Vaccine
3.2. Lack of Confidence in the COVID-19 Vaccine
3.3. Concerns about the Vaccines’ Safety
3.4. Desire to Receive the COVID-19 Vaccine
3.5. Reasons for Acceptance of the COVID-19 Vaccine (Qualitative Results)
3.5.1. Ending the COVID-19 Pandemic
“I think mass vaccination would be the only way to get rid of the current situation. Studies have shown that being infected by COVID-19 does not result in permanent immunity, and the pandemic will last until we get vaccinated.” Female, 29 years old.
“I want to put aside the facemasks, antiseptics, and gloves.” Female, 25 years old.
“My family’s health is important for me. Therefore, despite the fact that sports are one of my essential needs in life, I have canceled all of my athletic events even though it is one of my needs in life. After getting vaccinated, I can return to the normal situation with a bit of flexibility.” Female, 28 years old.
“I am a student. I need to get back to the normal situation in order to continue my researchs. I’d like to attend university and participate in the in-person classes.”
“I get the COVID-19 vaccine because I am responsible for other people’s health.” Female, 35 years old.
“SARS-CoV-2 is a viral disease with a high potential for novel mutations, leading to more devastating complications. So, mass vaccination is required to prevent novel mutations to occur.” Female, 24 years old.
“If young people like me have the COVID-19 vaccine, the transmission will slow down, and elderly people, children, and those who are allergic to vaccine compounds will be protected.” Male, 20 years old.
“If I receive the COVID-19 vaccine, I will not become infected, and those who do not have access to or cannot afford the vaccine will become immune.” Male, 55 years old “We should think of those who may lose their life due to COVID-19 and reduce the risk for those high-risk populations.” Male, 40 years old.
“I lost my father because of COVID-19. I want to protect my mother.” Male, 54 years old.
“If my vaccination against COVID-19 can help the medical sciences, even if it means losing my life, I am one hundred percent willing to help.” Male, 58 years old.
3.5.3. Becoming Immune against COVID-19
“I have taken health measures up to now, and I have not contracted COVID-19. “However, if the vaccine is shown to be effective, I would get it in order to reduce the risk of getting COVID-19 to zero.” Male, 29 years old.
“COVID-19 is a dangerous disease, leading to irreversible physical and psychological complications, even after recovery.” Therefore I would receive the vaccine.” Female, 21 years old.
“I am a nursing student, and I have strong exposure to the COVID-19. I prefer to receive the vaccine.” Female, 22 years old.
3.5.4. Psychological Well-Being
“I will receive the COVID-19 vaccine, so I will not be concerned about being the carrier and transmitting COVID-19 to my family, and I will not be worried about losing my family.” Female, 20 years old.
“The stress has impaired my job and life.” Female, 27 years old.
3.5.5. Hopefulness about Vaccine Effectiveness
3.5.6. Trust in the COVID-19 Vaccine
“Modern laboratories, pharmaceutical companies, and scientists have worked constantly to produce the safest vaccine.” a participant said. “Making COVID-19 vaccine in less than a year is a miracle in medicine, and we should respect them all as they save people’s lives.” Male, 33 years old.
“I do not know anything about medicine”, one participant said, “but I’m sure the COVID-19 vaccine will be effective, just like other vaccines made for contagious diseases such as tetanus, measles, and rubella.” Female, 47 years old.
3.6. Reasons for Rejection of the COVID-19 Vaccine (Qualitative Results)
3.6.1. Unknown Policies Underlying the COVID-19 Pandemic
“The plan to spread the virus throughout the world is used by dark governments to perform mass vaccination, implant nanochips into people’s bodies, and control the people.” Female, 50 years.
“COVID-19 is a political game”, said another participant, “vaccination, facemasks, and social distancing are unnecessary because they do not effectively protect people against COVID-19; on the other hand, they have their own harms.” Male, unknown age.
“This virus is human-made, and they created its vaccine before spreading it. They began this crime in order to force governments to purchase the vaccine. Who can guarantee that no unpredictable event would occur after the COVID-19 vaccine injection, and that we will not be forced to use another medication?” Female, 51 years old.
“The World health organization and pharmaceutical companies do not care about people’s health”, said another participant, “More patients means more money and profit.” Female, 24 years old.
3.6.2. Lack of Knowledge about COVID-19 Vaccine
“The COVID-19 vaccine surely has complications, but nobody will tell us.” Female, 27 years old.
“I will not use the COVID-19 vaccine unless a majority of people inject it and I make sure of its safety.” Female, 47 years old.
“Complications of COVID-19 vaccine are not fully determined, and we cannot claim that contracting COVID-19 is worse than the complications of the COVID-19 vaccine.” Female, 23 years old.
“I think one year is insufficient to evaluate the complications of a vaccine.” Long-term complications of COVID-19 vaccine should also be studied.” Female, 26 years old.
3.6.3. Lack of Trust in the COVID-19 Vaccine
“People in the developed countries are refusing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine and do not accept it. Therefore, they try to put it to test on people in the developing countries.” Female, 38 years old.
“Pharmaceutical companies are liars.” Male, 36 years old.
“There is more likely that I will receive the COVID-19 vaccine if it is made of the attenuated virus; compared to the mRNA vaccines.” Male, 25 years old.
“I will not inject the COVID-19 vaccine because they will inject us with something else instead of vaccine”, Female, 44 years old.
“People who are afflicted with COVID-19 are only immune for four to six months, and there is a risk of reinfection. Then how can the COVID-19 vaccine be effective?” Female, 46 years old.
“COVID-19 has different effects on individuals with different genomes”, said another participant. “So, one type of vaccine will not be effective for all people, especially those that are manufactured overseas.” Female, 42 years old.
“COVID-19 vaccine is more harmful than COVID-19 itself.” Male, 20 years old
“Mortality rate and paralysis of people who received the COVID-19 vaccine make me worried.” Female, 24 years old.
“COVID-19 vaccine causes infertility and autism.” Female, 35 years old.
“I think that a vaccine that has been produced in a short time would have some unknown side effects. I am afraid of these side effects.” Female, 22 years old.
“I contracted polio by using the oral polio vaccine because one country was running human trials on the polio vaccine, without informing people.” Female, 58 years old.
“Scientists do not have enough information about the COVID-19 and the process of its mutations. Therefore, they are unable to produce an effective vaccine.” Female, 42 years old.
3.6.4. Personal Issues
“One of my family members has an underlying disease that even contracting an inactivated virus can be dangerous for him.” Female, 42 years old.
“I do not have enough money to purchase the COVID-19 vaccine. We will die as a result of starvation, not because of COVID-19.” Female, 35 years old.
“We have enough problems in our life.” one of the participants said. “COVID-19 is better than such life.” Female, 30 years old.
3.6.5. Feeling No Need for the COVID-19 Vaccine
“I think I have been infected with COVID-19, and I do not need the vaccine.” Female, 40 years old.
“Coronaviruses have existed for a long time.” one of the participants said. “COVID-19 has a 3% mortality rate, particularly in those with a weak immune system.” Female, unknown age.
“I prefer not to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. If other people get vaccinated, they will become immune too.”Male, 36 years old.
“I prefer to continue social distancing and other protective measures.” Female, 59 years old.
“I prefer to use Imam Kazim medicine that I have witnessed its effects.” one participant said. “All of my family could go through the COVID-19 with minimal symptoms because of this medicine.” Female, 42 years old.
“I have been infected with COVID-19 three times, but I have recovered using vitamin C and thyme instead of tea.” Male, 24 years old.
“In my opinion, older adults should receive the vaccine, but others should be infected with COVID-19 and enhance their immune system to produce the antibodies.” Female, 30 years old.
“A disease is a natural event, and our bodies and nature have their own ways to face diseases. There is no need for external solutions.” Female, 45 years old.
“I am not one of the high-risk people” one of the participants stated “I prefer that those who are at high risk for COVID-19 infection receive the vaccine.” Female, 22 years old.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Age||15–29 years||780 (40.5%)|
|30–39 years||516 (26.8%)|
|40–49 years||355 (18.4%)|
|50–59 years||193 (10%)|
|>60 years||84 (4.4%)|
|Marital Status||Single||870 (45.1%)|
|Divorced or the partner has died||63 (3.3%)|
|Place of Living||Rural||68 (3.5%)|
|Educational Level||Less than high school diploma||66 (3.4%)|
|High school diploma (11 years of education)||461 (23.9%)|
|College degree||108 (5.6%|
|Bachelor’s degree||740 (38.4%)|
|Master’s degree||360 (18.7%)|
|Doctorate or higher degree||193 (10%)|
|Healthcare worker||157 (8.1%)|
|Salary||Do not receive a salary||578 (30%)|
|Less than 20 million Rials||332 (17.2%)|
|Between 20 to 40 million Rials||413 (21.4%)|
|Between 40 to 60 million Rials||228 (14.9%)|
|More than 60 million Rials||317 (16.4%)|
|Source of COVID-19 News||TV news||411 (21.3%)|
|Social media||1032 (53.5%)|
|Daily Time Spent Following COVID-19 News||Do not follow the news on most days||476 (24.7%)|
|Less than one hour a day||1080 (56%)|
|Between one to two hours a day||265 (13.7%)|
|More than two hours a day||107 (5.5%)|
|History of COVID-19 Infection in the Participants or Their First-Degree Relatives||No||765 (39.7%)|
|History of Hospitalization Due to COVID-19 in the Participants or Their First-Degree Relatives||No||1527 (79.2%)|
|Death of First-degree relatives due to COVID-19||No||1727 (89.6%)|
|Attitude||Lack of Confidence||Vaccine Safety Concern|
|Mean (SD)||p-Value||Mean (SD)||p-Value||Mean (SD)||p-Value|
|Age group||15–29 years||10.2 (3.39)||0.104||39.52(10.87)||0.001||15.48 (4.97)||0.368|
|30–39 years||9.92 (3.6)||40.49 (11.12)||15.71 (4.74)|
|40–49 years||9.58 (3.8)||42 (11.05)||16.02 (4.09)|
|50–59 years||9.67 (3.51)||42.12 (9.76)||16.39 (3.56)|
|>60 years||9.84 (3.52)||41.5 (10.05)||16.14 (4.48)|
|Gender||Female||9.69 (3.6)||<0.001||40.97 (10.93)||0.05||16.02 (4.54)||0.05|
|Male||10.4 (3.4)||39.89 (10.74)||15.3 (4.7)|
|Marital status||Single||10.25 (3.39)||<0.001||39.21 (10.76)||<0.001||15.3 (4.89)||0.001|
|Married||9.76 (3.63)||41.53 (10.8)||16.09 (4.35)|
|Divorced or the partner has died||8.53 (3.8)||44.53 (11.17)||16.9 (4.15)|
|Area of residency||Rural||9.61 (4.04)||0.698||41.91 (11.06)||0.301||16.1 (4.91)||0.301|
|Urban||9.95 (3.53)||40.53 (10.86)||15.75 (4.6)|
|Educational level||Less than high school diploma||7.98 (3.71)||<0.001||45.46 (9.65)||<0.001||17.98 (3.93)||<0.001|
|High school diploma (11 years of education)||9.52 (3.75)||41.67 (10.84)||16.19 (4.56)|
|College degree||9.77 (2.97)||42.25 (8.68)||16.9 (4.14)|
|Bachelor’s degree||9.84 (3.53)||41.02 (11.15)||15.73 (4.58)|
|Master’s degree||10.51 (3.43)||38.92 (10.71)||15.34 (4.83)|
|Doctorate or higher degree||11.03 (3.04)||36.79 (10.25)||14.23 (4.36)|
|Occupation||Unemployed||9.42 (3.92)||<0.001||42.06 (12.69)||<0.001||16.2 (5.29)||<0.001|
|Housewife||9.4 (3.48)||42.37 (10.26)||16.91 (3.77)|
|Student||10.33 (3.31)||38.43 (10.42)||15.2 (4.95)|
|Healthcare worker||10.48 (3.62)||38.85 (11.04)||14.58 (4.54)|
|Employee||9.94 (3.6)||40.95 (10.96)||15.78 (4.62)|
|Retired||9.59 (3.25)||42.29 (9.35)||16.13 (3.76)|
|Salary||Do not receive a salary||9.75 (3.57)||0.023||40.59 (11.23)||0.004||16.02 (4.85)||0.012|
|Less than 20 million Rials||9.86 (3.41)||41.21 (10.74)||16.08 (4.48)|
|Between 20 to 40 million Rials||10.42 (3.58)||40.74 (10.75)||15.56 (4.57)|
|Between 40 to 60 million Rials||9.72 (3.73)||41.65 (10.75)||15.76 (4.27)|
|More than 60 million Rials||10.46 (3.39)||38.72 (10.65)||15.22 (4.63)|
|Source of COVID-19 news||TV news||8.94 (3.46)||<0.001||44.19 (947)||<0.001||17.1 (3.79)||<0.001|
|Websites||10.26 (3.56)||40.11 (10.82)||15.38 (4.24)|
|Social media||10.41 (3.37)||38.83 (10.81)||15.26 (4.85)|
|Other||8.74 (4.07)||43.7 (11.93)||16.37 (4.97)|
|Daily time spent following COVID-19 news||Do not follow the news on most days||8.6 (3.82)||<0.001||44.71 (11.1)||<0.001||16.98 (4.66)||<0.001|
|Less than one hour a day||10.25 (3.34)||39.54 (10.36)||15.54 (4.46)|
|Between one to two hours a day||10.64 (3.43)||39.01 (10.52)||15.1 (4.42)|
|More than two hours a day||11.14 (2.96)||36.64 (10.89)||14.15 (5.26)|
|History of COVID-19 infection in the participants or their first-degree relatives||No||10.01 (3.6)||0.268||40.51 (11.04)||0.67||15.66 (4.72)||0.67|
|Yes||9.9 (3.51)||40.63 (10.76)||15.82 (4.54)|
|History of hospitalization due to COVID-19 in the participants or their first-degree relatives||No||10.03 (3.54)||0.02||40.37 (10.86)||0.033||15.64 (4.62)||0.033|
|Yes||9.61 (3.57)||41.4 (10.87)||16.22 (4.56)|
|Death of first-degree relatives due to COVID-19||No||10.02 (3.5)||0.007||40.38 (10.79)||0.011||15.67 (4.6)||0.011|
|Yes||9.24 (3.86)||42.35 (11.38)||16.52 (4.68)|
|Dependent Variable||Independent Variables||Beta||p-Value|
|COVID-19 Vaccine Attitude Questionnaire||Educational degree of less than a high school diploma||−1.33||0.002|
|Educational degree higher than master’s||0.814||<0.001|
|Websites and social media as the main source of COVID-19 news||1.213||<0.001|
|Not following COVID-19 news during the day||−1.615||<0.001|
|Loss of the first-degree relative due to COVID-19||−0.849||0.001|
|COVID-19 vaccine lack of confidence inventory||Single marital status||−1.636||0.002|
|Educational degree higher than master’s||−3.212||<0.001|
|Websites and social media as the main source of COVID-19 news||−3.959||<0.001|
|Not following COVID-19 news during the day||5.222||<0.001|
|Loss of the first-degree relative due to COVID-19||2.032||0.008|
|Modified vaccine safety concern scale||Female gender||0.569||0.008|
|Educational degree higher than master’s||−0.831||<0.001|
|Using websites and social media as the main source of COVID-19 news||−1.397||<0.001|
|Not following COVID-19 news during the day||1.42||<0.001|
|Variables||Expect to Receive COVID-19 Vaccine||p-Value|
|Age (years)||35.97 (12.5)||34.4 (12.83)||0.001|
|Gender||Female||413 (33.4%)||823 (66.6%)||0.002|
|Male||185 (26.7%)||507 (73.3%)|
|Marital status||Single||240 (27.6%)||630 (72.4%)||0.011|
|Married||335 (337%)||660 (66.3%)|
|Divorced or the partner has died||23 (36.5%)||40 (63.5%)|
|Area of residency||Rural||21 (30.9%)||47 (69.1%)||1|
|Urban||577 (31%)||1283 (69%)|
|Educational level||Less than high school diploma||25 (37.9%)||41 (62.1%)||0.726|
|High school diploma||146 (31.7%)||315 (68.3%)|
|College degree||33 (30.6%)||75 (69.4%)|
|Bachelor’s degree||234 (31.6%)||506 (68.4%)|
|Master’s degree||105 (29.2%)||255 (70.8%)|
|Doctorate or higher degree||55 (28.5%)||138 (71.5%)|
|Occupation||Unemployed||37 (32.5%)||68 (64.8%)||0.032|
|Housewife||82 (30.7%)||185 (69.3%)|
|Student||95 (24.1%)||299 (75.9%)|
|Healthcare worker||49 (31.2%)||108 (68.8%)|
|Employee||305 (33.3%)||612 (66.7%)|
|Retired||30 (34.1%)||58 (65.9%)|
|Salary||Do not receive a salary||173 (29.9%)||405 (70.1%)||0.0.137|
|Less than 20 million Rials||103 (31%)||229 (69%)|
|Between 20 to 40 million Rials||139 (33.7%)||274 (66.3%)|
|Between 40 to 60 million Rials||100 (34.7%)||188 (65.3%)|
|More than 60 million Rials||83 (26.2%)||234 (73.8%)|
|Source of COVID-19 news||TV news||143 (34.8%)||268 (65.25)||0.004|
|Websites||107 (32.2%)||225 (67.8%)|
|Social media||287 (27.8%)||745 (72.2%)|
|Other||61 (39.9%)||92 (60.1%)|
|Daily time spent following COVID-19 news||Do not follow the news on most days||212 (44.5%)||264 (55.5%)||<0.001|
|Less than one hour a day||308 (28.5%||772 (71.5%)|
|Between one to two hours a day||64 (24.2%)||201 (75.8%)|
|More than two hours a day||14 (13.1%)||93 (86.9%)|
|History of COVID-19 infection in the participants or their first-degree relatives||No||248 (32.4%)||517 (67.6%)||0.291|
|Yes||350 (30.1%)||813 (69.9%)|
|History of hospitalization due to COVID-19 in the participants or their first-degree relatives||No||469 (30.7%)||1058 (69.3%)||0.585|
|Yes||129 (32.2%)||272 (67.8%)|
|Death of first-degree relatives due to COVID-19||No||528 (30.6%)||1199 (69.4%)||0.227|
|Yes||70 (34.8%)||131 (65.2%)|
|COVID-19 vaccine attitude questionnaire||6.92 (3.6)||12.17 (2.55)||<0.001|
|COVID-19 vaccine lack of confidence inventory||50.52 (8.54)||36.11 (8.62)||<0.001|
|Modified vaccine safety scale||18.51 (3.56)||14.53 (4.5)||<0.001|
|Acceptance or Rejection||Theme||Subtheme||Code|
|Acceptant of the COVID-19 vaccine||Ending the COVID-19 pandemic||Controlling the pandemic||Controlling COVID-19 dissemination|
|Reaching herd immunity|
|Tough pandemic situation||Getting tired of quarantine|
|Getting tired of taking health measures|
|Getting tired of the current situation|
|Returning to the pre-pandemic situation||Improvement of the situation|
|To have social interactions|
|Return to normality|
|Return to job|
|Responsibility||Social responsibility||Social duty|
|Prevention from SARS-CoV-2 mutation|
|Encouraging other people to receive the COVID-19 vaccine|
|Protecting other people||Helping those who have a contraindication to receiving the COVID-19 vaccine|
|Helping people who can not receive the COVID-19 vaccine|
|Immunity of other people|
|Prevention of the transmission of COVID-19 to others|
|Protection of family members|
|The underlying diseases of family members|
|Helping HCWs and scientists||Reduction in the psychological burden on HCWs|
|Help the HCWs|
|Increasing the knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine|
|Becoming immune to COVID-19||Prevention of being infected||Prevention from being a carrier of SARS-CoV-2|
|Immunity against the COVID-19|
|Immunity of family|
|Prevention of severe forms of COVID-19||Prevention from death due to COVID-19|
|Prevention from the severe forms|
|Prevention of the complications|
|Susceptibleness to COVID-19||Having underlying diseases|
|Being infected by COVID-19 in the past|
|Psychological well-being||Fear of contracting COVID-19||Concerns about family|
|Fear of COVID-19|
|Concerns about contracting COVID-19|
|Psychological issues of COVID-19 pandemic||Ease of concerns in social life|
|Alleviation of the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic|
|Hopefulness about vaccine effectiveness||Cost-effectiveness||Possibility of the COVID-19 vaccine efficiency|
|Harms of current situation compared to COVID-19 vaccine|
|Higher odds of COVID-19 vaccine benefits|
|Taking action against the COVID-19||Avoid being passive|
|Taking a risk|
|Lack of an alternative|
|Trust in the COVID-19 vaccine||Current scientific evidence||Trust in scientific resources|
|Trust in the experts|
|Trust in the science|
|Prior experiences with vaccination||History of vaccination during the life|
|Prior successful vaccination programs|
|Vaccination against COVID-19 by others|
|Reject to receive the COVID-19 vaccine||Unknown policies behind COVID-19 pandemic||Spreading the COVID-19 purposefully||Using COVID-19 vaccine to control the world|
|Using COVID-19 vaccine to harm people|
|Using COVID-19 to control the population growth|
|Secret goals of producing COVID-19 vaccine|
|COVID-19 being human-made|
|Commercial purposes of spreading COVID-19||COVID-19 conspiracy to sell the vaccine|
|Commercial purposes of producing COVID-19 vaccine|
|Lack of trust in the current policies||COVID-19 being a political game|
|Lack of trust in governments|
|Lack of trust in the officials|
|Lack of knowledge about COVID-19 vaccine||Untrustworthy news||Hiding the truth|
|Lack of enough information on COVID-19 vaccine||Lack of enough data on COVID-19 vaccine|
|Wait to see the vaccination results|
|Lack of enough studies on COVID-19 vaccine||Undetermined vaccine complications|
|Undetermined vaccine efficacy|
|Lack of routine studies|
|Novel vaccine components|
|Lack of trust in COVID-19 vaccine||Other people’s practice toward COVID-19 vaccine||Other people not getting vaccinated|
|Encouragers of COVID-19 vaccine are not vaccinated|
|Lack of trust in scientific resources||Lack of trust in scientists|
|Lack of trust in pharmaceutical companies|
|Unreliability of COVID-19 vaccine||Lack of trust in techniques to produce COVID-19 vaccine|
|Lack of trust in COVID-19 vaccine|
|Undetermined components of COVID-19 vaccine|
|Low quality of the COVID-19 vaccine||Ineffectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine|
|The inability of vaccines to induce long-term immunity|
|Issues with COVID-19 vaccine||COVID-19 vaccine hazards|
|Fear of COVID-19 vaccine|
|Previous experiences of vaccine complications|
|Nature of SARS-CoV-2||SARS-CoV-2 mutations|
|Lack of awareness about SARS-CoV-2|
|Lack of access to effective vaccine||Lack of access to high-quality vaccine|
|Uncertainty in the safe transition of COVID-19 vaccine|
|Personal issues||Underlying conditions||Underling disease|
|History of allergy|
|Financial issues||Financial pressures|
|The high price of the vaccine|
|Problems in life||Tough situations in life|
|Feeling no need for COVID-19 vaccine||Resistance to COVID-19||History of being infected with COVID-19|
|Having a strong immune system|
|Lack of underlying disease|
|Nature of COVID-19||COVID-19 being a mild disease|
|Using preventive strategies||Herd immunity with vaccination of other people|
|Effectiveness of preventive strategies|
|Not going out|
|Possible treatments||Using effective medications|
|Not interfering with the natural course of COVID-19||Being infected is better than vaccination|
|Necessity of following the natural process|
|Responsibility||-||Others being in priority|
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Nakhostin-Ansari, A.; Zimet, G.D.; Khonji, M.S.; Aghajani, F.; Teymourzadeh, A.; Rastegar Kazerooni, A.A.; Pirayandeh, P.; Aghajani, R.; Safari, S.; Khalaj, K.; et al. Acceptance or Rejection of the COVID-19 Vaccine: A Study on Iranian People’s Opinions toward the COVID-19 Vaccine. Vaccines 2022, 10, 670. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050670
Nakhostin-Ansari A, Zimet GD, Khonji MS, Aghajani F, Teymourzadeh A, Rastegar Kazerooni AA, Pirayandeh P, Aghajani R, Safari S, Khalaj K, et al. Acceptance or Rejection of the COVID-19 Vaccine: A Study on Iranian People’s Opinions toward the COVID-19 Vaccine. Vaccines. 2022; 10(5):670. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050670Chicago/Turabian Style
Nakhostin-Ansari, Amin, Gregory D. Zimet, Mohammad Saeid Khonji, Faezeh Aghajani, Azin Teymourzadeh, Amir Ali Rastegar Kazerooni, Pendar Pirayandeh, Reyhaneh Aghajani, Sepideh Safari, Kamand Khalaj, and et al. 2022. "Acceptance or Rejection of the COVID-19 Vaccine: A Study on Iranian People’s Opinions toward the COVID-19 Vaccine" Vaccines 10, no. 5: 670. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050670