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Open AccessReview

Mitochondrial Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Alzheimer Disease

1
Department of Chemistry and Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Mount Union, Alliance, OH 44601, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090818
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 22 August 2020 / Accepted: 29 August 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
Oxidative and nitrosative stress are widely recognized as critical factors in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) and its earlier stage, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A major source of free radicals that lead to oxidative and nitrosative damage is mitochondria. This review paper discusses oxidative and nitrosative stress and markers thereof in the brain, along with redox proteomics, which are techniques that have been pioneered in the Butterfield laboratory. Selected biological alterations in—and oxidative and nitrosative modifications of—mitochondria in AD and MCI and systems of relevance thereof also are presented. The review article concludes with a section on the implications of mitochondrial oxidative and nitrosative stress in MCI and AD with respect to imaging studies in and targeted therapies toward these disorders. Taken together, this review provides support for the notion that brain mitochondrial alterations in AD and MCI are key components of oxidative and nitrosative stress observed in these two disorders, and as such, they provide potentially promising therapeutic targets to slow—and hopefully one day stop—the progression of AD, which is a devastating dementing disorder. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative and nitrosative stress; mitochondrial dysfunction; Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment; redox proteomics; amyloid beta-peptide oxidative and nitrosative stress; mitochondrial dysfunction; Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment; redox proteomics; amyloid beta-peptide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Butterfield, D.A.; Boyd-Kimball, D. Mitochondrial Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Alzheimer Disease. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 818. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090818

AMA Style

Butterfield DA, Boyd-Kimball D. Mitochondrial Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Alzheimer Disease. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(9):818. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090818

Chicago/Turabian Style

Butterfield, D. A.; Boyd-Kimball, Debra. 2020. "Mitochondrial Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Alzheimer Disease" Antioxidants 9, no. 9: 818. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090818

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