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Cardiovascular and Metabolic Protection by Vitamin E: A Matter of Treatment Strategy?

by 1,†, 2,3,†, 2,3 and 4,5,6,7,*
1
Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Internal Medicine III, University Clinic of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
2
Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University, 07743 Jena, Germany
3
Competence Cluster for Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (nutriCARD) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany
4
Atherothrombosis and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 75 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
5
Department of Medicine and Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
6
Department of Cardiometabolic Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
7
Department of Cardiology, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100935
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 23 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 29 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Chronic Inflammation)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cause about 1/3 of global deaths. Therefore, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular events are highly sought-after. Vitamin E is known for significant antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and has been studied in the prevention of CVD, supported by findings that vitamin E deficiency is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, randomized controlled trials in humans reveal conflicting and ultimately disappointing results regarding the reduction of cardiovascular events with vitamin E supplementation. As we discuss in detail, this outcome is strongly affected by study design, cohort selection, co-morbidities, genetic variations, age, and gender. For effective chronic primary and secondary prevention by vitamin E, oxidative and inflammatory status might not have been sufficiently antagonized. In contrast, acute administration of vitamin E may be more translatable into positive clinical outcomes. In patients with myocardial infarction (MI), which is associated with severe oxidative and inflammatory reactions, decreased plasma levels of vitamin E have been found. The offsetting of this acute vitamin E deficiency via short-term treatment in MI has shown promising results, and, thus, acute medication, rather than chronic supplementation, with vitamin E might revitalize vitamin E therapy and even provide positive clinical outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin E; cardiovascular disease; myocardial infarction; risk factors; treatment strategy vitamin E; cardiovascular disease; myocardial infarction; risk factors; treatment strategy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ziegler, M.; Wallert, M.; Lorkowski, S.; Peter, K. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Protection by Vitamin E: A Matter of Treatment Strategy? Antioxidants 2020, 9, 935. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100935

AMA Style

Ziegler M, Wallert M, Lorkowski S, Peter K. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Protection by Vitamin E: A Matter of Treatment Strategy? Antioxidants. 2020; 9(10):935. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100935

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ziegler, Melanie, Maria Wallert, Stefan Lorkowski, and Karlheinz Peter. 2020. "Cardiovascular and Metabolic Protection by Vitamin E: A Matter of Treatment Strategy?" Antioxidants 9, no. 10: 935. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100935

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