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Paraoxonases Activities and Polymorphisms in Elderly and Old-Age Diseases: An Overview

1
Genetic and Molecular Hematology Laboratory (LIM31), Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, São Paulo 05419-000, SP, Brazil
2
Center of Innovation and Translacional Medicine (CIMTRA), Department of Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, São Paulo 05419-000, SP, Brazil
3
Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia em Medicina Regenerativa (INCT-Regenera), CNPq, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, RJ, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050118
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract

Aging is defined as the accumulation of progressive organ dysfunction. There is much evidence linking the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of aging. With increasing age, susceptibility to the development of diseases related to lipid peroxidation and tissue injury increases, due to chronic inflammatory processes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals. The paraoxonase (PON) gene family is composed of three members (PON1, PON2, PON3) that share considerable structural homology and are located adjacently on chromosome 7 in humans. The most studied member product is PON1, a protein associated with high-density lipoprotein with paraoxonase/esterase activity. Nevertheless, all the three proteins prevent oxidative stress. The major aim of this review is to highlight the importance of the role of PON enzymes in the aging process, and in the development of the main diseases present in the elderly: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; paraoxonase; PON; lipids; lipid peroxidation; heart disease; atherosclerosis; diabetes; cancer; neurodegenerative diseases aging; paraoxonase; PON; lipids; lipid peroxidation; heart disease; atherosclerosis; diabetes; cancer; neurodegenerative diseases
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Levy, D.; Reichert, C.O.; Bydlowski, S.P. Paraoxonases Activities and Polymorphisms in Elderly and Old-Age Diseases: An Overview. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 118.

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