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Open AccessPerspective

Human Periapical Cyst-Derived Stem Cells Can Be A Smart “Lab-on-A-Cell” to Investigate Neurodegenerative Diseases and the Related Alteration of the Exosomes’ Content

1
Marelli Health, Tecnologica Research Institute, Stem cell Unit, 88900 Crotone, Italy
2
Department of Therapeutic Dentistry, Sechenov University Russia, 19с1 Moscow, Russia
3
Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples, 80138 Napoli, Italy
4
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 70, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-last authors.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(12), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120358
Received: 21 October 2019 / Revised: 4 December 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 5 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience)
Promising researches have demonstrated that the alteration of biological rhythms may be consistently linked to neurodegenerative pathologies. Parkinson’s disease (PD) has a multifactorial pathogenesis, involving both genetic and environmental and/or molecular co-factors. Generally, heterogeneous alterations in circadian rhythm (CR) are a typical finding in degenerative processes, such as cell aging and death. Although numerous genetic phenotypes have been discovered in the most common forms of PD, it seems that severe deficiencies in synaptic transmission and high vesicular recycling are frequently found in PD patients. Neuron-to-neuron interactions are often ensured by exosomes, a specific type of extracellular vesicle (EV). Neuron-derived exosomes may carry several active compounds, including miRNAs: Several studies have found that circulating miRNAs are closely associated with an atypical oscillation of circadian rhythm genes, and they are also involved in the regulation of clock genes, in animal models. In this context, a careful analysis of neural-differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and the molecular and genetic characterization of their exosome content, both in healthy cells and in PD-induced cells, could be a strategic field of investigation for early diagnosis and better treatment of PD and similar neurodegenerative pathologies. A novel MSC population, called human periapical cyst–mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy–MSCs), has demonstrated that it naively expresswa the main neuronal markers, and may differentiate towards functional neurons. Therefore, hPCy–MSCs can be considered of particular interest for testing of in vitro strategies to treat neurological diseases. On the other hand, the limitations of using stem cells is an issue that leads researchers to perform experimental studies on the exosomes released by MCSs. Human periapical cyst-derived mesenkymal stem cells can be a smart “lab-on-a-cell” to investigate neurodegenerative diseases and the related exosomes’ content alteration. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; human periapical cyst–mesenchymal stem cells; oral stem cells Parkinson’s disease; human periapical cyst–mesenchymal stem cells; oral stem cells
MDPI and ACS Style

Tatullo, M.; Codispoti, B.; Spagnuolo, G.; Zavan, B. Human Periapical Cyst-Derived Stem Cells Can Be A Smart “Lab-on-A-Cell” to Investigate Neurodegenerative Diseases and the Related Alteration of the Exosomes’ Content. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 358.

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