Next Article in Journal
Connexin 43 Controls the Astrocyte Immunoregulatory Phenotype
Next Article in Special Issue
Quality of Life and Stigma in Epilepsy, Perspectives from Selected Regions of Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa
Previous Article in Journal
Pretreatment with Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist LY379268 Protects Neonatal Rat Brains from Oxidative Stress in an Experimental Model of Birth Asphyxia
Previous Article in Special Issue
l-Carnitine Modulates Epileptic Seizures in Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Rats via Suppression of Apoptosis and Autophagy and Upregulation of Hsp70
Open AccessReview

Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

Department of Neurology, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA
Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(4), 49;
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Epilepsy)
Despite appropriate trials of at least two antiepileptic drugs, about a third of patients with epilepsy remain drug resistant (intractable; refractory). Epilepsy surgery offers a potential cure or significant improvement to those with focal onset drug-resistant seizures. Unfortunately, epilepsy surgery is still underutilized which might be in part because of the complexity of presurgical evaluation. This process includes classifying the seizure type, lateralizing and localizing the seizure onset focus (epileptogenic zone), confirming the safety of the prospective brain surgery in terms of potential neurocognitive deficits (language and memory functions), before devising a surgical plan. Each one of the above steps requires special tests. In this paper, we have reviewed the process of presurgical evaluation in patients with drug-resistant focal onset epilepsy. View Full-Text
Keywords: medically intractable epilepsy; EEG; epilepsy surgery; MRI; epilepsy; seizures medically intractable epilepsy; EEG; epilepsy surgery; MRI; epilepsy; seizures
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Anyanwu, C.; Motamedi, G.K. Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Drug-Resistant Epilepsy. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 49.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop