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Open AccessArticle

Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Renders Neuroprotection through the Suppression of Hippocampal Apoptosis: An Experimental Animal Study

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School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
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Neuroscience Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou 33305, Taiwan
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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei-11031, Taiwan
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Research Center of Biomedical Device, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010025
Received: 19 November 2019 / Revised: 27 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 2 January 2020
The core objective of this study was to determine the neuroprotective properties of deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus on the apoptosis of the hippocampus. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus is a prime target for Parkinson′s disease and is a crucial component in a feedback loop connected with the hippocampus. Deep brain stimulation was employed as a potential tool to evaluate the neuroprotective properties of hippocampal apoptosis. Deep brain stimulation was applied to the experimental animals for an hour. Henceforth, the activity of Caspase-3, myelin basic protein, Bcl-2, BAX level, lipid peroxidation, interleukin-6 levels, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were evaluated at hours 1, 3 and 6 and compared with the sham group of animals. Herein, decreased levels of caspases activity and elevated levels of Bcl-2 expressions and inhibited BAX expressions were observed in experimental animals at the aforementioned time intervals. Furthermore, the ratio of Bcl-2/BAX was increased, and interleukin -6, lipid peroxidation levels were not affected by deep brain stimulation in the experimental animals. These affirmative results have explained the neuroprotection rendered by hippocampus apoptosis as a result of deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation is widely used to manage neuro-motor disorders. Nevertheless, this novel study will be a revelation for a better understanding of neuromodulatory management and encourage further research with new dimensions in the field of neuroscience.
Keywords: PPTg-DBS; BDNF; caspase-3; lipid peroxidation; hippocampus; apoptosis PPTg-DBS; BDNF; caspase-3; lipid peroxidation; hippocampus; apoptosis
MDPI and ACS Style

Rajneesh, C.P.; Hsieh, T.-H.; Chen, S.-C.; Lai, C.-H.; Yang, L.-Y.; Chin, H.-Y.; Peng, C.-W. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Renders Neuroprotection through the Suppression of Hippocampal Apoptosis: An Experimental Animal Study. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 25.

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