Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) experienced at a young age is undoubtedly a serious medical problem. AIS very rarely occurs at a developmental age, whereas in young adults, it occurs with a higher frequency. The etiologic mechanisms of AIS occurring in childhood and adulthood differ. However, for both age populations, neurological consequences of AIS, including post-stroke seizures, motor disability, and recurrence of the disease, are connected to many years of care, rehabilitation, and treatment. Recurrent stroke was observed to increase the risk of patients’ mortality. One of the confirmed risk factors for recurrent stroke in children is the presence of vasculopathies, especially Moyamoya disease and syndrome, and focal cerebral arteriopathy of childhood (FCA). FCA causes a 5-fold increase in the risk of recurrent stroke in comparison with idiopathic AIS. In turn, young adults with recurrent stroke were found to more often suffer from hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or peripheral artery disease than young patients with first-ever stroke. Some reports also indicate relationships between specific genetic polymorphisms and AIS recurrence in both age groups. The aim of the present literature review was to discuss available data regarding the risk factors for recurrent AIS in children and young adults.
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