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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Multiple Openings on Reinforced Concrete Outrigger Walls in a Tall Building

Department of Architecture, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4913; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224913
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectural Structure)
Outrigger systems have been used to control the lateral displacement of tall buildings. Reinforced concrete (R.C.) outrigger walls with openings can be used to replace conventional steel outrigger trusses. In this paper, a structural model for an R.C. outrigger wall with multiple openings was proposed, and the effects of the multiple openings on the stiffness and strength of the outrigger walls were evaluated. The equivalent bending stiffness of the outrigger wall was derived to predict the lateral displacement at the top of tall buildings and internal shear force developed in the wall. The openings for the passageway in the wall were designed by the strut-and-tie model. The stiffness and strength of the outrigger wall with multiple openings was analyzed by the nonlinear finite element analysis. Taking into consideration the degradation in stiffness and strength, the ratio of the opening area to the outrigger wall area is recommended to be less than 20%. The degradation of stiffness due to openings does not affect the structural performance of the outrigger system when the outrigger has already large stiffness as the case of reinforced concrete outrigger walls. View Full-Text
Keywords: outrigger wall; multiple openings; deep beam; stiffness; shear strength; tall building outrigger wall; multiple openings; deep beam; stiffness; shear strength; tall building
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Kim, H.-S.; Huang, Y.-T.; Jin, H.-J. Influence of Multiple Openings on Reinforced Concrete Outrigger Walls in a Tall Building. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4913.

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