To achieve frequency regulation, energy-storage systems (ESSs) are systems that monitor and maintain the grid frequency. In South Korea, the total installed capacity of battery ESSs (BESSs) is 376 MW, and these have been employed to achieve frequency regulation since 2015. When the frequency of a power grid is input, accurately estimating the state of charge (SOC) of a battery is difficult because it charges or discharges quickly according to the frequency regulation algorithm. If the SOC of a battery cannot be estimated, the battery can be used in either a high SOC or low SOC. This makes the battery unstable and reduces the safety of the ESS system. Therefore, it is important to precisely estimate the SOC. This paper proposes a technique to estimate the SOC in the test pattern of a frequency regulation ESS using extended Kalman filters. In addition, unlike the conventional extended Kalman filter input with a fixed-error covariance, the SOC is estimated using an adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) whose error covariance is updated according to the input data. Noise is likely to exist in the environment of frequency regulation ESSs, and this makes battery-state estimation more difficult. Therefore, significant noise has been added to the frequency regulation test pattern, and this study compares and verifies the estimation performance of the proposed AEKF and a conventional extended Kalman filter using measurement data with severe noise.
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