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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of the Impact of the “Sea Toll” Program for Seaports: Resilience and Competitiveness

Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, 65145 Malang, Indonesia
Institute of Industrial Management, School of Management, National Central University, Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3407;
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Engineering and Management: Current Issues and Trends)
Maritime transportation is one of the most important global activities, especially for archipelagic countries. Inland components that exist within the seaport system, such as port authorities who manage passenger and cruise services even for container unloading and loading areas, have become an important aspect to improve performance and determine competitive strategies for seaports. The importance of this interdependence between ports with passenger services and container seaports led us to investigate the impact of the “sea toll” program on seaport resilience and competitiveness. Although the concept of a “sea toll” was initiated by the US government in 2011, there are only a few, if any, studies or clear standards related to the development of “sea toll” systems in archipelago countries. We conducted an empirical study in Indonesia through an online survey of key stakeholders of seaports, including shipping companies, seaport authorities, commodities companies, and government. The data were analyzed using the analytical hierarchy process technique and the results showed that the “sea toll” had an impact on seaport resilience and competitiveness. For seaport resilience, the “sea toll” had an impact on the strategic alliance. For competitiveness, the “sea toll” had an impact on seaport performance, including ship calling frequency and reliability. View Full-Text
Keywords: “sea toll” program; resilience; competitiveness; AHP “sea toll” program; resilience; competitiveness; AHP
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Kusuma, L.T.W.N.; Tseng, F.-S. Analysis of the Impact of the “Sea Toll” Program for Seaports: Resilience and Competitiveness. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3407.

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