Maritime transportation is one of the most important global activities, especially for archipelagic countries. Inland components that exist within the seaport system, such as port authorities who manage passenger and cruise services even for container unloading and loading areas, have become an important aspect to improve performance and determine competitive strategies for seaports. The importance of this interdependence between ports with passenger services and container seaports led us to investigate the impact of the “sea toll” program on seaport resilience and competitiveness. Although the concept of a “sea toll” was initiated by the US government in 2011, there are only a few, if any, studies or clear standards related to the development of “sea toll” systems in archipelago countries. We conducted an empirical study in Indonesia through an online survey of key stakeholders of seaports, including shipping companies, seaport authorities, commodities companies, and government. The data were analyzed using the analytical hierarchy process technique and the results showed that the “sea toll” had an impact on seaport resilience and competitiveness. For seaport resilience, the “sea toll” had an impact on the strategic alliance. For competitiveness, the “sea toll” had an impact on seaport performance, including ship calling frequency and reliability.
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