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Blockchain-Based Applications in Education: A Systematic Review

Blockchain-Based Badge Award with Existence Proof

Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
Saltlux, Seoul 06147, Korea
Dept. of Computer Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan 31253, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2473;
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Blockchain Technology and Applications)
In this paper, we present a badge awarding system for performance assessment in education using blockchain technology. Learners will be awarded badges, which are certified for a predetermined level of progress in terms of learning. All the badges are stored in a backpack, which is an environment for storing and presenting the obtained badges. Badges are immutable and verifiable as well as rigid. The use of badges in the education system makes education more interesting, skill-based, and adaptable to changes. The key contribution of our work is in terms of compatibility with Openbadge specification and integrated cooperating platform between digital badge awarding and blockchaining. Our system implementation is compatible with Open Badges of IMS Global Learning Consortium, which is used to earn, issue, and award badges across various platforms. The badges are trusted by the IMS standard, the criteria to earn a badge is verified through the network, and the overall process is transparent compared to the traditional education system. Moreover, all badge awarding events in our system are recorded in a blockchain. Once stored, the contents cannot be tampered with. Thereafter, anyone can check the validity of the badge through the blockchain. Our platform will be useful for distance learning as well as time and location independent learning. The experimental results are as follows. On a Bitcoin-based digital badge publishing platform, the execution time required to award the badge is 24.53 s, while on the Ethereum-based digital badge publishing platform, the execution time to award the badge is only 3.86 s. It can also be used for career management and personal history. The learners can obtain the current knowledge required for a job. Lifelong learning will be also possible with this platform. View Full-Text
Keywords: blockchain; digital badge; open badge; bitcoin; ethereum blockchain; digital badge; open badge; bitcoin; ethereum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, M.; Kiran, S.R.; Oh, S.-C.; Kwon, O.-Y. Blockchain-Based Badge Award with Existence Proof. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2473.

AMA Style

Choi M, Kiran SR, Oh S-C, Kwon O-Y. Blockchain-Based Badge Award with Existence Proof. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(12):2473.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choi, Min, Shinde R. Kiran, Se-Chang Oh, and Oh-Young Kwon. 2019. "Blockchain-Based Badge Award with Existence Proof" Applied Sciences 9, no. 12: 2473.

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