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Open AccessArticle

The Antifungal Potential of Carvacrol against Penicillium Digitatum through 1H-NMR Based Metabolomics Approach

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Collaborative Innovation Center of Post-Harvest Key Technology and Quality Safety of Fruits and Vegetables in Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Key Laboratory for Postharvest Technology and Non-destructive Testing of Fruits & Vegetables, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
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Pingxiang University, Pingxiang, Jiangxi 337055, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (CUVAS), Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112240
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 26 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity and Applications of Natural Compounds)
Carvacrol (5-Isopropyl-2-methylphenol), a volatile oil constituent, mainly exists in Labiaceae family plants. Carvacrol has long been studied for its natural antifungal potential and food preservative potential. However, its exact mode of action, especially against Penicillium digitatum (P. digitatum), remains unexplored. Herein, a 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was used to investigate the antifungal mechanism of carvacrol against P. digitatum. The metabolomic profiling data showed that alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and glutathione metabolism were imbalanced in the fungal hyphae. A strong positive correlation was seen between aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and glutamine, with a negative correlation among glutathione and lactate. These metabolic changes revealed that carvacrol-induced oxidative stress had disturbed the energy production and amino acid metabolism of P. digitatum. The current study will improve the understanding of the metabolic changes posed by plant-based fungicides in order to control citrus fruit green mold caused by P. digitatum. Moreover, the study will provide a certain experimental and theoretical basis for the development of novel citrus fruit preservatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acid metabolism; carvacrol; metabolomics data; oxidative stress; Penicillium digitatum amino acid metabolism; carvacrol; metabolomics data; oxidative stress; Penicillium digitatum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wan, C.; Shen, Y.; Nisar, M.F.; Qi, W.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. The Antifungal Potential of Carvacrol against Penicillium Digitatum through 1H-NMR Based Metabolomics Approach. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2240.

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