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Article

Effects of Aging, Cognitive Dysfunction, Brain Atrophy on Hemoglobin Concentrations and Optical Pathlength at Rest in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Study

1
Laboratory of Universal Sport Health Sciences, Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8561, Japan
2
Institute for Healthcare Robotics, Future Robotics Organization, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan
3
Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Fukushima 963-8642, Japan
4
Center for Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2209; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112209
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Horizons in Time-Domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging)
Background: In order to evaluate usefulness of a time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) in screening test of cognitive dysfunction, we studied the effects of aging, cognitive dysfunction, brain atrophy on hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and optical pathlengths (OPLs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at rest, using TRS. Methods: Employing TRS, we measured Hb concentrations and OPLs at rest in the PFC, and evaluated the relationship between the TRS parameters and cognitive function assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the TRS parameters and the brain atrophy assessed by MRI. Results: We found positive correlations between MMSE scores and oxygen saturation (SO2), oxy-Hb in the PFC, suggesting that the greater the degree of PFC activity, the higher the cognitive function. In addition, we found the negative correlation between the subject’s age and SO2 and oxy-Hb in the PFC, suggesting that the older the subject, the lower the PFC activity at rest. Moreover, the OPLs in the right PFC negatively correlated with degree of brain atrophy evaluated by MRI, indicating that the shorter the OPL, greater degree of brain atrophy. Conclusions: TRS allowed us to evaluate the relation between the cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) in the PFC at rest and cognitive function. View Full-Text
Keywords: near infrared spectroscopy; aging; prefrontal cortex; TRS; magnetic resonance imaging; brain atrophy; VSRAD; optical pathlength; hemoglobin; cognitive function near infrared spectroscopy; aging; prefrontal cortex; TRS; magnetic resonance imaging; brain atrophy; VSRAD; optical pathlength; hemoglobin; cognitive function
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakatani, K.; Hu, L.; Oyama, K.; Yamada, Y. Effects of Aging, Cognitive Dysfunction, Brain Atrophy on Hemoglobin Concentrations and Optical Pathlength at Rest in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Study. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2209. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112209

AMA Style

Sakatani K, Hu L, Oyama K, Yamada Y. Effects of Aging, Cognitive Dysfunction, Brain Atrophy on Hemoglobin Concentrations and Optical Pathlength at Rest in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Study. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(11):2209. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112209

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakatani, Kaoru, Lizhen Hu, Katsunori Oyama, and Yukio Yamada. 2019. "Effects of Aging, Cognitive Dysfunction, Brain Atrophy on Hemoglobin Concentrations and Optical Pathlength at Rest in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Study" Applied Sciences 9, no. 11: 2209. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112209

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