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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091566

Mass Transfer Phenomena during Electrodialysis of Multivalent Ions: Chemical Equilibria and Overlimiting Currents

IEC Group, Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera s/n, 46022 València, Spain
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Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electro-membrane Processes for Clean Water and Sustainable Energy)
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Abstract

Electrodialysis is utilized for the deionization of saline streams, usually formed by strong electrolytes. Recently, interest in new applications involving the transport of weak electrolytes through ion-exchange membranes has increased. Clear examples of such applications are the recovery of valuable metal ions from industrial effluents, such as electronic wastes or mining industries. Weak electrolytes give rise to a variety of ions with different valence, charge sign and transport properties. Moreover, development of concentration polarization under the application of an electric field promotes changes in the chemical equilibrium, thus making more complex understanding of mass transfer phenomena in such systems. This investigation presents a set of experiments conducted with salts of multivalent metals with the aim to provide better understanding on the involved mass transfer phenomena. Chronopotentiometric experiments and current-voltage characteristics confirm that shifts in chemical equilibria can take place simultaneous to the activation of overlimiting mass transfer mechanisms, that is, electroconvection and water dissociation. Electroconvection has been proven to affect the type of precipitates formed at the membrane surface thus suppressing the simultaneous dissociation of water. For some electrolytes, shifts in the chemical equilibria forced by an imposed electric field generate new charge carriers at specific current regimes, thus reducing the system resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: overlimiting mass transfer; electroconvection; water dissociation; electrodialysis; ion transport; weak electrolytes; multivalent ion transport; electromembrane processes; ion-exchange membranes overlimiting mass transfer; electroconvection; water dissociation; electrodialysis; ion transport; weak electrolytes; multivalent ion transport; electromembrane processes; ion-exchange membranes
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Martí-Calatayud, M.C.; García-Gabaldón, M.; Pérez-Herranz, V. Mass Transfer Phenomena during Electrodialysis of Multivalent Ions: Chemical Equilibria and Overlimiting Currents. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1566.

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