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DF Relayed Subcarrier FSO Links over Malaga Turbulence Channels with Phase Noise and Non-Zero Boresight Pointing Errors

1
Department of Electronics, Computers, Telecommunications and Control, Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
2
Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communications, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
3
Department of Computer Science and Biomedical Informatics, University of Thessaly, Papasiopoulou 2-4, 35131 Lamia, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050664
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Wireless Communications)
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Abstract

Subcarrier free-space optical (FSO) systems using coherent recovery techniques at the receiver have acquired growing research interest in recent times. However, their optimal performance is diminished by the non-perfect synchronization of carrier frequency and phase, which is mainly due to phase noise problems. Moreover, turbulence and pointing error effects further deteriorate the overall performance. However, relay transmission schemes can extend the coverage distance and offer substantial improvements over fading conditions. In this respect, we consider a serially relayed network using decode-and-forward relays, and investigate its performance by means of average symbol error probability and mean outage duration. Turbulence is modeled by the recently unified M(alaga) distribution, which constitutes a very general statistical model that accurately describes the irradiance fluctuations from weak-to-strong turbulence conditions. Additionally, the presence of non-zero boresight pointing errors due to misalignment between the transmitter–receiver pair is considered, while the effect of phase noise is specified by a Tikhonov distribution. A comparison between single line-of-sight and serially relayed FSO configurations is provided as well. Novel approximated mathematical expressions are deduced, which are proved to be accurate enough over a wide range of turbulence strengths and signal-to-noise values. Finally, proper numerical results are presented and validated by Monte Carlo simulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: free-space optics (FSO); multi-hop transmission; atmospheric turbulence; pointing errors; phase noise free-space optics (FSO); multi-hop transmission; atmospheric turbulence; pointing errors; phase noise
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Varotsos, G.K.; Nistazakis, H.E.; Gappmair, W.; Sandalidis, H.G.; Tombras, G.S. DF Relayed Subcarrier FSO Links over Malaga Turbulence Channels with Phase Noise and Non-Zero Boresight Pointing Errors. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 664.

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