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Growth Identification of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by Visible/Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

1,†, 1,†, 2, 3, 1, 4,* and 5,*
1
College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Crop Genetics and Breeding Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 2747 Davis Road, Tifton, GA 31793, USA
3
College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
4
College of Information Engineering, Tarim University, Alar 843300, China
5
Multidisciplinary Initiative Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040513
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyperspectral Chemical Imaging for Food Authentication)
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Abstract

Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging (400–1000 nm) was applied to identify the growth process of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The hyperspectral images of the two fungi that were growing on rose bengal medium were recorded daily for 6 days. A band ratio using two bands at 446 nm and 460 nm separated A. flavus and A. parasiticus on day 1 from other days. Image at band of 520 nm classified A. parasiticus on day 6. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed on the cleaned hyperspectral images. The score plot of the second to sixth principal components (PC2 to PC6) gave a rough clustering of fungi in the same incubation time. However, in the plot, A. flavus on day 3 and day 4 and A. parasiticus on day 2 and day 3 overlapped. The average spectra of each fungus in each growth day were extracted, then PCA and support vector machine (SVM) classifier were applied to the full spectral range. SVM models built by PC2 to PC6 could identify fungal growth days with accuracies of 92.59% and 100% for A. flavus and A. parasiticus individually. In order to simplify the prediction models, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was employed to choose optimal wavelengths. As a result, nine (402, 442, 487, 502, 524, 553, 646, 671, 760 nm) and seven (461, 538, 542, 742, 753, 756, 919 nm) wavelengths were selected for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively. New optimal wavelengths SVM models were built, and the identification accuracies were 83.33% and 98.15% for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively. Finally, the visualized prediction images for A. flavus and A. parasiticus in different growth days were made by applying the optimal wavelength’s SVM models on every pixel of the hyperspectral image. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus parasiticus; growth identification; hyperspectral imaging Aspergillus flavus; Aspergillus parasiticus; growth identification; hyperspectral imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chu, X.; Wang, W.; Ni, X.; Zheng, H.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, R.; Li, Y. Growth Identification of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by Visible/Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 513.

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