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Histone Modification: A Mechanism for Regulating Skeletal Muscle Characteristics and Adaptive Changes

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Matsumoto University, 2095-1 Niimura, Matsumoto City, Nagano 390-1295, Japan
Academic Editor: Iori Sakakibara
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3905; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093905
Received: 5 April 2021 / Revised: 21 April 2021 / Accepted: 22 April 2021 / Published: 26 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skeletal Muscle)
Epigenetics is getting increased attention in the analysis of skeletal muscle adaptation to physiological stimuli. In this review, histone modifications in skeletal muscles and their role in the regulation of muscle characteristics and adaptive changes are highlighted. The distribution of active histone modifications, such as H3K4me3 and H3 acetylation, largely differs between fast- and slow-twitch muscles. It is also indicated that the transcriptional activity in response to exercise differs in these muscle types. Histone turnover activated by exercise training leads to loosening of nucleosomes, which drastically enhances gene responsiveness to exercise, indicating that the exercise training transforms the chromatin structure to an active status. Furthermore, histone modifications play a critical role in preserving the stem cell lineage in skeletal muscle. Lack of lysine-specific demethylase 1 in satellite cells promotes the differentiation into brown adipocytes during muscle regeneration after injury. H4K20me2, which promotes the formation of heterochromatin, is necessary to repress MyoD expression in the satellite cells. These observations indicate that histone modification is a platform that characterizes skeletal muscles and may be one of the factors regulating the range of adaptive changes in these muscles. View Full-Text
Keywords: skeletal muscle; epigenetics; histone modification; exercise training; histone turnover skeletal muscle; epigenetics; histone modification; exercise training; histone turnover
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kawano, F. Histone Modification: A Mechanism for Regulating Skeletal Muscle Characteristics and Adaptive Changes. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3905. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093905

AMA Style

Kawano F. Histone Modification: A Mechanism for Regulating Skeletal Muscle Characteristics and Adaptive Changes. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(9):3905. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093905

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kawano, Fuminori. 2021. "Histone Modification: A Mechanism for Regulating Skeletal Muscle Characteristics and Adaptive Changes" Applied Sciences 11, no. 9: 3905. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093905

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