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Article

Thermal Effects on Photovoltaic Array Performance: Experimentation, Modeling, and Simulation

by 1,2,†, 2,†, 2,†, 2,*,† and 3,†
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
3
CanmetENERGY, Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources 1615 Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Isabel Santiago Chiquero
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041460
Received: 12 January 2021 / Revised: 30 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 5 February 2021
The performance of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are affected by the operating temperature, which is influenced by thermal losses to the ambient environment. The factors affecting thermal losses include wind speed, wind direction, and ambient temperature. The purpose of this work is to analyze how the aforementioned factors affect array efficiency, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient/thermal loss factor. Data on ambient and array temperatures, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance, and electrical output were collected from a PV array mounted on a CanmetENERGY facility in Varennes, Canada, and analyzed. The results were compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and existing results from PVsyst. The findings can be summarized into three points. First, ambient temperature and wind speed are important factors in determining PV performance, while wind direction seems to play a minor role. Second, CFD simulations found that temperature variation on the PV array surface is greater at lower wind speeds, and decreases at higher wind speeds. Lastly, an empirical correlation of heat transfer coefficient/thermal loss factor has been developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: solar PV; photovoltaic; thermal loss factor; heat transfer coefficient; wind speed; wind effect; cooling solar PV; photovoltaic; thermal loss factor; heat transfer coefficient; wind speed; wind effect; cooling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghabuzyan, L.; Pan, K.; Fatahi, A.; Kuo, J.; Baldus-Jeursen, C. Thermal Effects on Photovoltaic Array Performance: Experimentation, Modeling, and Simulation. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1460. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041460

AMA Style

Ghabuzyan L, Pan K, Fatahi A, Kuo J, Baldus-Jeursen C. Thermal Effects on Photovoltaic Array Performance: Experimentation, Modeling, and Simulation. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(4):1460. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041460

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghabuzyan, Levon; Pan, Kevin; Fatahi, Arianna; Kuo, Jim; Baldus-Jeursen, Christopher. 2021. "Thermal Effects on Photovoltaic Array Performance: Experimentation, Modeling, and Simulation" Appl. Sci. 11, no. 4: 1460. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041460

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