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Article

Defining Whole Grain Sorghum Flour and Water Levels to Improve Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Gluten-Free Bread—A Factorial Design Approach

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Laboratory of Food Technology and Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Campus Baixada Santista, Institute of Health and Society, Federal University of São Paulo, Santos 11015-020, Brazil
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Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas 35701-970, Brazil
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Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Humanities and Exact Sciences (Ibilce), Campus São José do Rio Preto, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, São José do Rio Preto 15054-000, Brazil
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Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anabela Raymundo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8186; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178186
Received: 2 August 2021 / Revised: 26 August 2021 / Accepted: 31 August 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
This study aims to investigate the potential of white and bronze whole-grain sorghum flour to develop gluten-free bread (GFB) with acceptable sensory properties. Two 22 factorial designs, with two central point repetitions each, were used to study the effects of white (WS) or bronze sorghum (BS) flours and water (W) levels on the physical properties, acceptability scores, and proximate composition of GFB. The WS or BS levels ranged from 50 to 100% when blended with potato starch, and the W levels ranged from 100 to 140% (flour weight basis). Independent of the amount applied, GFB formulations containing BS were well accepted (acceptability scores for appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor and overall liking ≥ 6.29 on a 10 cm hybrid hedonic scale). No significant differences were observed between the acceptability scores of single and composite formulations for all of the evaluated sensory attributes. Moreover, the W levels had no effect on the acceptability of GFB made with BS. Composite formulations prepared with 50 and 75% WS were also well accepted (acceptability scores for appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor, and overall liking ≥ 7.43 on a 10 cm hybrid hedonic scale). However, increased W levels are required in single formulations to increase the scores for texture and overall acceptability. GFB made with 50% and 75% WS/BS can be classified as a source of fiber since the fiber content is higher than 3 g per 100 g, while GFB made with 100% WS/BS can be classified as high in fiber, as the content of this component is higher than 6 g per 100 g. This research highlights the great potential of whole-grain sorghum flours for producing nutrient-dense and acceptable GFB, which is important for consumers who choose or must adhere to a GF diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free bread; Sorghum bicolor; whole grains; sensory acceptance; multiple factor analysis gluten-free bread; Sorghum bicolor; whole grains; sensory acceptance; multiple factor analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Centeno, A.C.L.; Aguiar, E.; Santos, F.; Queiroz, V.; Conti-Silva, A.; Krupa-Kozak, U.; Capriles, V. Defining Whole Grain Sorghum Flour and Water Levels to Improve Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Gluten-Free Bread—A Factorial Design Approach. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8186. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178186

AMA Style

Centeno ACL, Aguiar E, Santos F, Queiroz V, Conti-Silva A, Krupa-Kozak U, Capriles V. Defining Whole Grain Sorghum Flour and Water Levels to Improve Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Gluten-Free Bread—A Factorial Design Approach. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(17):8186. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178186

Chicago/Turabian Style

Centeno, Ana C.L., Etiene Aguiar, Fernanda Santos, Valéria Queiroz, Ana Conti-Silva, Urszula Krupa-Kozak, and Vanessa Capriles. 2021. "Defining Whole Grain Sorghum Flour and Water Levels to Improve Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Gluten-Free Bread—A Factorial Design Approach" Applied Sciences 11, no. 17: 8186. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178186

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