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Article

School of the Future: A Comprehensive Study on the Effectiveness of Augmented Reality as a Tool for Primary School Children’s Education

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Visual Analytics for Knowledge Laboratory, Department of Software, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
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Digital Image Processing Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Islamia College University Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
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Intelligent Media Laboratory, Department of Software, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
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Color Lab, Department of Computer Science (IDI), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 2815 Gjøvik, Norway
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Afnan and Khan Muhammad contributed as co-first authors in this research.
Academic Editor: Jiro Tanaka
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5277; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115277
Received: 13 March 2021 / Revised: 7 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
With the emerging technologies of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR), the learning process in today’s classroom is much more effective and motivational. Overlaying virtual content into the real world makes learning methods attractive and entertaining for students while performing activities. AR techniques make the learning process easy, and fun as compared to traditional methods. These methods lack focused learning and interactivity between the educational content. To make learning effective, we propose to use handheld marker-based AR technology for primary school students. We developed a set of four applications based on students’ academic course of primary school level for learning purposes of the English alphabet, decimal numbers, animals and birds, and an AR Globe for knowing about different countries around the world. These applications can be played wherever and whenever a user wants without Internet connectivity, subject to the availability of a tablet or mobile device and the required target images. These applications have performance evaluation quizzes (PEQs) for testing students’ learning progress. Our study investigates the effectiveness of AR-based learning materials in terms of learning performance, motivation, attitude, and behavior towards different methods of learning. Our activity results favor AR-based learning techniques where students’ learning motivation and performance are enhanced compared to the non-AR learning methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: augmented reality; learning motivation; learning achievements; 3D modelling; performance evaluation; reality-based modeling; students education; traditional methods; virtual reality augmented reality; learning motivation; learning achievements; 3D modelling; performance evaluation; reality-based modeling; students education; traditional methods; virtual reality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Afnan; Muhammad, K.; Khan, N.; Lee, M.-Y.; Imran, A.S.; Sajjad, M. School of the Future: A Comprehensive Study on the Effectiveness of Augmented Reality as a Tool for Primary School Children’s Education. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 5277. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115277

AMA Style

Afnan, Muhammad K, Khan N, Lee M-Y, Imran AS, Sajjad M. School of the Future: A Comprehensive Study on the Effectiveness of Augmented Reality as a Tool for Primary School Children’s Education. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(11):5277. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115277

Chicago/Turabian Style

Afnan, Khan Muhammad, Noman Khan, Mi-Young Lee, Ali Shariq Imran, and Muhammad Sajjad. 2021. "School of the Future: A Comprehensive Study on the Effectiveness of Augmented Reality as a Tool for Primary School Children’s Education" Applied Sciences 11, no. 11: 5277. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115277

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