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Open AccessArticle

Chemical and Biological Characterization of Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) and Volatile Organic Compounds Collected at Different Sites in the Los Angeles Basin

1
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772, USA
2
Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772, USA
3
Environmental Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan
4
Aerosol Dynamics, Inc., Berkeley, CA 94710, USA
5
Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Química, 40170290 Salvador-BA, Brasil
6
División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, Av San Pablo Xalpa 150, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3245; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093245
Received: 4 April 2020 / Revised: 1 May 2020 / Accepted: 3 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Air Quality Monitoring and Assessment)
Background: Most studies on air pollution (AP) exposure have focused on adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM). Less well-studied are the actions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) not retained in PM collections. These studies quantified chemical and biological properties of both PM2.5 and VOCs. Methods: Samples were collected near the Port of Los Angeles (Long Beach, LB), railroads (Commerce, CM), and a pollution-trapping topography-site (San Bernardino, SB). Quantitative assays were conducted: (1) chemical—prooxidant and electrophile content, (2) biological—tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression (3), VOC modulation of PM effects and (4), activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE) using murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: SB site samples were the most potent in the chemical and biological assays, followed by a CM railroad site. Only PM2.5 exhibited significant proinflammatory responses. VOCs were more potent than PM2.5 in generating anti-inflammatory responses; further, VOC pretreatment reduced PM-associated TNF-α expression. VOCs significantly increased ARE activation compared to their corresponding PM2.5 which remained at background levels. Conclusion: Ambient VOCs are major contributors to adaptive responses that can modulate PM effects, in vitro, and, as such, need to be included in comprehensive assessments of AP. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; VOC; volatile organic compounds; prooxidants; electrophiles; tumor necrosis factor alpha; hemeoxygenase-1; ambient air; antioxidant response element; murine RAW 264.7 macrophages PM2.5; VOC; volatile organic compounds; prooxidants; electrophiles; tumor necrosis factor alpha; hemeoxygenase-1; ambient air; antioxidant response element; murine RAW 264.7 macrophages
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Cho, A.K.; Shinkai, Y.; Schmitz, D.A.; Di Stefano, E.; Eiguren-Fernandez, A.; Guarieiro, A.L.N.; Salinas, E.M.; Froines, J.R.; Melega, W.P. Chemical and Biological Characterization of Particulate Matter (PM 2.5) and Volatile Organic Compounds Collected at Different Sites in the Los Angeles Basin. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3245.

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