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Article

Heavy Metal Extraction under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using 3-Hydroxy-2-Naphthoate- Based Ionic Liquids: Extraction Capabilities vs. Acute Algal Toxicity

1
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 42, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Instituto de Investigación Marina (INMAR), University of Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
3
Department of Limnology and Bio-Oceanography, Faculty of Life Sciences, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
4
Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3157; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093157
Received: 15 April 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 28 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
We investigated the applicability of three task-specific ionic liquids (ILs) as heavy metal extracting agents by contrasting extraction capabilities with algal toxicity. The compounds tested were trihexyltetradecylphosphonium-, methyltrioctylphosphonium- and methyltrioctylammonium 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoates. Experiments were performed to assess if these ILs can provide environmentally safe residual concentrations of the target metals after extraction. Both pure water and natural mineral water samples were spiked with 20 µg L−1 of Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively. Quantitative extraction (> 99%) of Hg and Ag was achieved. Cu and Hg were below the respective no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOECs) after extraction and Ag below 0.03 µg L−1. Acute toxicity assays were conducted using two freshwater green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata and Tetradesmus obliquus. Growth inhibition and maximum photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II after 72 h were assessed. ILs were less toxic than similar compounds, but still must be classified as acute toxicants for algae. An inhibiting effect on both growth and chlorophyll fluorescence was observed. The leaching of the ILs into the samples remains a limitation regarding their environmental-friendly applicability. Nonetheless, the extremely efficient removal of Cu, Ag and Hg under environmentally relevant conditions calls for further research, which should focus on the immobilization of the ILs. View Full-Text
Keywords: task-specific ionic liquids; heavy metal extraction; algal toxicity; growth inhibition; chlorophyll fluorescence task-specific ionic liquids; heavy metal extraction; algal toxicity; growth inhibition; chlorophyll fluorescence
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3753183
    Description: Figure S1: Effect of the three ILs on algal growth (filled symbols) and chlorophyll fluorescence (Rel. φ, open symbols) in 72 h acute toxicity assays with T. obliquus, n=3, error bars = ± SD
MDPI and ACS Style

Pirkwieser, P.; López-López, J.A.; Schagerl, M.; Kandioller, W.; Keppler, B.K.; Moreno, C.; Jirsa, F. Heavy Metal Extraction under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using 3-Hydroxy-2-Naphthoate- Based Ionic Liquids: Extraction Capabilities vs. Acute Algal Toxicity. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3157. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093157

AMA Style

Pirkwieser P, López-López JA, Schagerl M, Kandioller W, Keppler BK, Moreno C, Jirsa F. Heavy Metal Extraction under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using 3-Hydroxy-2-Naphthoate- Based Ionic Liquids: Extraction Capabilities vs. Acute Algal Toxicity. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(9):3157. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093157

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pirkwieser, Philip, José A. López-López, Michael Schagerl, Wolfgang Kandioller, Bernhard K. Keppler, Carlos Moreno, and Franz Jirsa. 2020. "Heavy Metal Extraction under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using 3-Hydroxy-2-Naphthoate- Based Ionic Liquids: Extraction Capabilities vs. Acute Algal Toxicity" Applied Sciences 10, no. 9: 3157. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093157

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