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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Anti-Frothing Effect of Poultry Feathers in Bio-Based, Polycondensation-Type Thermoset Composites

1
Institute of Building Materials Research, Schinkelstraße 3, 52072 Aachen, Germany
2
Kao European Research Laboratories, KAO Germany GmbH, Pfungstädter Str. 98–100, D-64297 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062150
Received: 21 February 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 21 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Hybrid Composites)
The formation of polycondensation-type thermoset resins from natural reactants such as citric and glutaric acid, as well as 1,3-propanediol and glycerol, was studied. Monitoring the mass loss by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) allowed the rate constants of the esterification to be calculated, which were in the order of 7·10−5 s−1 for glutaric acid and approximately twice as high for citric acid. However, the combination citric acid/glycerol was previously reported to froth up at high conversions, giving rise to foams, which makes the preparation of compact engineering composites challenging. In light of this, we observed that shredded poultry feathers not only increased the conversion and the reaction rate of the combination citric acid/glycerol, but increasing the amount of feathers continuously decreased the number of visible bubbles. The addition of 20 wt% of feathers completely prevented the previously reported frothing and gave rise to compact materials that were macroscopically free of defects. Besides this, the addition of feathers also improved the fire-retardant properties. The tensile properties of the first specimens are still rather low (σ = 11.6 N/mm2, E = 750 N/mm2), but the addition of poultry feathers opens a new path for green thermoset resins. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermoset; polyester; bio-based; poultry feathers; composite thermoset; polyester; bio-based; poultry feathers; composite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brenner, M.; Popescu, C.; Weichold, O. Anti-Frothing Effect of Poultry Feathers in Bio-Based, Polycondensation-Type Thermoset Composites. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062150

AMA Style

Brenner M, Popescu C, Weichold O. Anti-Frothing Effect of Poultry Feathers in Bio-Based, Polycondensation-Type Thermoset Composites. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(6):2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brenner, Markus; Popescu, Crisan; Weichold, Oliver. 2020. "Anti-Frothing Effect of Poultry Feathers in Bio-Based, Polycondensation-Type Thermoset Composites" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 6: 2150. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062150

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